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f ON DON OFFICES OT TME STVDIO 

L> ^HENRIETTA STREET C9VENT GARDEN 



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MESSRS. METHUEN'S LIST. 

NURSERY RHYMES. With many Coloured Pictures. 
By F. D. Bedford. Super royal 8vo, 5s. 
This book has many beautiful designs ia colour to illustrate the 
old rhymes. 

" A particularly pretty book. The rhymes are. for the most part, the old, old 
favourites which never go out of favour and memory. They are set within decora- 
tive borders, aiid each has a full-page picture in chaste and harmonious colours. 
The cover, too, is very artistic."— Glasgow Herald. 



By G. E. Farrow, 

With numerous Illus- 



"THE STUDIO" WINTER No. 

1897-8. 
• Supplements * 

'THE HETR TO FAIRY-LAND." 

From a Water-Colour by ROBERT HALLS. 

'IN NOOKS WITH BOOKS." 

An Auto-Lithograph by R. ANNING BELL. 

'SO LIGHT OF FOOT, SO LIGHT OF SPIRIT." 

By CHARLES ROBINSON. 

'KING LOVE. A CHRISTMAS GREETING." 

By H. GRANVILLE FELL. 

For Index of Artists' Names see Advt. page ii. 



THE WALLYPUG IN LONDON. 

Author of "The Walljpug of Why- 

trations. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 
An extravaganza for children, written with great charm and vivacity. 
It is of the Lewis Carroll genre, and describes the adventures in London 
of His Majesty King Wallypug, the Doctor-in- Law, and A. Fish, Esq. 
A number of clever illustrations animate the text. 

THE BATTLE OF THE FROGS AND MICE. Trans- 

lated by Jane Barlow, Author of " Irish Idylls," and pictured 
by F. D. Bedford. Small 4W, 6s. net. 

A BOOK OF FAIRY TALES. Retold by S. Baring- 

Gould. With numerous Illustrations and Initial Letters by 
Arthur J. Gaskin, Second Edition. Crown Svo, buckram, 6s. 
"The form of the book, and the printing, which is by Messrs. Constable, it were 
difficult to commend overmuch." — Saturday Review. 

OLD ENGLISH FAIRY TALES. Collected and Edited 
by S. Baring-Gould. With numerous Illustrations by F. D. 
Bedford. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, buckram, 6s. 

**A charming volume, which children will be sure to appreciate." — Guardian. 

A BOOK OF NURSERY SONGS AND RHYMES. 

Edited by S. Baring-Gould, and Illustrated by the Birmingham 

Art School. Buckram, gilt top, crown 8vo, 6s. 
" Superbly printed, on soft, thick p.iper, which it is a pleasure to touch ; and the 
borders and pictures are among the very best specimens we have seen of the Gaskin 
school." — Birmingham Gazette. 

A BOOK OF CHRISTMAS VERSE. Edited by H. C. 

Beeching, M.A., and Illustrated by Walter Crane. Crown 
Svo, gilt top, 5s. 
"An anthology which, from its unity of aim and high poetic excellence, has a 
better right to exist than most of its fellows.'' — Guardian. 



METHUEN & CO. 36 Essex Street, Strand. 



BLACKIE & SON'S NEW ILLUSTRATED BOOKS FOR THE YOUNG. 



By G. A. HENTY. 

WITH FREDERICK THE GREAT: 

A Tale of the Seven Years' War. With 12 
Page Illustrations by Wal Paget, and 
Maps. Crown 8vo, cloth elegant, olivine 
edges, 6s. 

By G. A. HENTY. 

WITH MOORE AT CORUNNA. 

With 12 Page Illustrations by Wal Paget. 
Crown 8vo, cloth elegant, olivine edges, 6s. 

By G. A. HENTY. 

A MARCH ON LONDON : Being a 

Story of Wat Tyler's Insurrection. With 8 
Page Illustrations by W. H. Margetson. 
Crown 8vo, cloth elegant, olivine edges, 5s. 



By A. J. CHURCH. 

LORDS OF THE WORLD: A Tale 

of the Fall of Cirthage and Corinth. With 
12 Page Illustrations by Ralph Peacock. 
Crown 8vo, cloth elegant, olivine edges, 6i. 

By HERBERT HAYENS. 

AT BAY: A Story of the 



PARIS 



Siege and the Commune. With 8 Page Illus- 
trations by Stanley L. Wood. Crown 8ra, 
cloth elegant, olivine edges, 5s. 

By GORDON STABLES. 

THE NAVAL CADET: A Story of 

Adventure on Land and Sea. With 6 Page 
Illustrations by William Rainey, R.I. 
Crown 8vo, cloth elegant, price 33. 61. 
By EDGAR PICKERING. 

A STOUT ENGLISH BOWMAN: 

Being a Story of Chivalry in the Days of 
Henry III. With 6 Page Illustrations by 
W. S. Stacey. Cr. 8vo, cloth elcgint,3s. 6d. 



By ROBERT LEIGHTON 

THE GOLDEN GALLEON: Being a 

Narrative of the Adventures of Master 
Gilbert Oglander, and of how in the year 
1591 he fought under the gallant Sir Richard 
Grenville in the great sea fight off Flores on 
board Her Majesty's Ship The Revenge. 
With 8 Page Illustrations, by William 
Rainey, R.I. Crown 8ro, cloth elegant, 5s. 

By KIRK MUNROE. 

WITH CROCKETT AND BOWIE: 

A Tale of Texas. With 8 Page Illustrations 
by Victor Perard. Crown 8vo, cloth ele- 
gant, olivine edges, 5s. 

By CHARLES W. WHISTLER. 

KING OLAF'S KINSMAN : A Story 

of the Last Saxon Struggle against the 
Danes in the Days of Ironside and Cnut. 
With 6 Page Illustrations by W. H. Mar- 
getson. Crown 8vo, cloth elegant, olivine 
edges, 4s. 



FINELY ILLUSTRATED CHILDREN'S BOOKS. 

RED APPLE AND SILVER BELLS : A Book of Verse for Children of all Ages. By Hamish Hendry. Every page is 

Decorated with charming Illustrations by Alice B. Woodward, amounting in all to over one hundred and fifty. Square 8vo, cloth elegant, «\\l 
edges, 6s. 

ADVENTURES IN TOYLAND. By Edith King Hall. With 8 Page Pictures printed in Colour, and 70 Black-and- 
white Illustrations throughout the Text, by Alice B. Woodward. Crown ato, decorated cloth boards, gilt edges, 5s. 

JUST FORTY WINKS : or, The Droll Adventures of Davie Trott. By Hamish Hendry. With 70 Humorous Illustra- 
tions by Gertrude M. Bradley. Square 8vo, cloth elegant, gilt edges, 5s. 



Also NEW STORY BOOKS at prices ranging from 2s. 6d. to 6d. 

BLACKIE 4V SON'S New Catalogue of Books suitable for Presentation, School Prizes, Rewards, &v., sent post free on application. 



London: BLACKIE & SON, Limited, 50 Old Bailey. 



GEO. ROWNEY & CO'S 

Patent p-— P"nnr1 — 

Sketch Books 




{Patent No. 7268) 

* * * 

The convenience of this method will be appreciated by all 
when sketching. 

The leaves can be turned right back without injuring the 
( binding, and will thus take only half the space of an ordinary 
/ book. 

There will be no loose sheets flying about when windy. 

Any of the leaves may be detached without loosening the 
remaining ones. 

There is no Increase of Price. 



"WHATMAN BOARD" 

RING-BOUND 
SKETCH BOOKS. 

Containing 8 Leaves. 

16mo Impl., l\-in.y.B\-in. 1 3 

8vo Impl., 10$-rs. x 7£-z'u. 2 

4to Impl., 144-iK. x10i-rn."3 6 



WHATMAN PAPER 

RING-BOUND 

SKETCH BOOKS. 

Containing 30 Leaves. 

32mo Impl. 6-J8.x3i.tx. 9 

16mo Royal, 51-z'x. x4i-z>>. 1 

16mo Imp!., 7-in.xB-in 1 3 

8vo Royal, B-in.xBi-in. 1 6 

8vo Impl., 10-z'zz.x7-zVz. 2 3 



CARTRIDGE PAPER 

RING-BOUND 
SKETCH BOOKS. 

Containing 36 Leaves. 

32mo Impl., 6-z«x3}-i». O 6 

16mo Impl., 7-in.xB-in. 1 O 

8vo Royal, 9-zVz. xBi-in. 1 3 

8vo Impl., 10-z'k. X 7-z'zz. 2 

4to Impl., 14-z'k. x 10-zzz. 3 O 

Other Sizes in Preparation. 



Manufacture* QEQ ROWNEY & CO., 64 Oxford St., London, W. 



To be obtained from all Stationers and Artists' Colourmen throughout the Kingdom. 



THE ROYAL COPENHAGEN PORCELAIN 

Danish Ceramic Art 

Vases * Figures * Plaques 

SUITABLE FOR 

CHRISTMAS PRESENTS 





JBs appointment 

to Uj.iTB. tbe 
Ring of HJenmarla 



36s appointment, 

to fc.lfi.*i. tbe 
!pvtncc30OfTHHales 




THE POTTERY QAZETTE writes : " To understand the glorification of which pure porcelain^ as a 
material is capable, one has only to examine the Royal Copenhagen Ware, consisting exclusively of firm 
hard'Jporcelain. The ornamental part is simply a collection of triumphs. The ware is dazzling white, 
the glaze perfectly tender and clear, the forms are simple to severity, and the colours delicate and sweet. 
The'*' whole" of Jthe decoration is produced at the Grand feu. The charm of this ware is its perfect 

simplicity and artistic truth." 

Danish House, 294 Regent Street, London, W. 

' Jad. I 



906339 



Index of Illustrators 

Winter Number 1897-8 



BATTEN, J. D 34 

BELL, ROBT. ANNING . 42, and Supplement II. 

BEWICK, THOMAS 7 

BROOKE, L. LESLIE 67 

BROWNE, GORDON .... 31,32,52,68 

BRITTEN, W. E. F 44 

CALVERT, E / . . 68 

CLARK, J. B 44 

CRANE, WALTER .... 23, 24, 25 

CROWQUILL, A 13 

CRUIKSHANK, GEORGE 10 

DOYLE, RICHARD 15 

FELL, GRANVILLE . . 42, and Supplement IV. 

GASKIN, ARTHUR 63 

GASKIN, MRS . 54 

GERE, CM 49 

GREENAWAY, KATE . . . . 26, 27 

HALLS, ROBERT .... Supplement I. 

HALLWARD, MRS 54 

HAVERS, ALICE . . . . . 28, 29 

HORSLEY, J. C, R.A 11 

HUGHES, ARTHUR .... 17, 18, 19 

KEENE, CHARLES 14 

KEMP-WELCH, LUCY 66 



PAGE 

MACGREGOR, ARCHIE . . . . 41, 48 

MAHONEY, J 18 

MAURIER, G. DU 16 

MONVEL, M. BOUTET DE . . . 61, 62 

MARKS, H. S., R.A 21 

MORGAN, W. DE 22 

"NOBODY, A." 50,51,53 

PAGET, WILL 33 

PATON, SIR NOEL 21 

PYLE, HOWARD .... 36, 37, 38 

ROBINSON, CHARLES . . 63, 64, 65, and 

[Supplement III. 

SAMBOURNE, LINLEY 22 

SMITH, WINIFRED 39 

SOUTHALL, E 57 

SPEED, LANCELOT .... 30, 31, 40 

STRANG, W 45 

SULLIVAN, J. F 46 

SUMNER, HEYWOOD .... 

TENNIEL, SIR JOHN .... 



40 
20 



WIEGAND, W. J 20 

WEIR, HARRISON 12 

WOODROFFE, PAUL 58 

WOODWARD, A. B 47, 48, 52 



DEAN'S RENOWNED BOOKS for CHILDREN. 



Handsomely bound in cloth 
gilt and colour, bevelled bds, , 
gilt edges, 2s. 6d. Size, Im- 
perial 8vo. 

BLOSSOMS FROM 
OLD TREES; 

Or, Nursery Rhymes Retold. 

By M. WATERSON. 
Villi 16 full-page Illustrations 
beautifully executed in a Tint 
by D. WATERSON. 
The Stories are cleverly spun 
Fairy Tales upon some of our 
most popular NurseryRhymes, 
and the book will make a 
most delightful gift for a child. 

Handsomely bound , cloth gilt, 
gilt edges, price 3s. 6d. 

OLD HUNGARIAN 
FAIRY TALES. 

By the BARONESS ORCZY 

and 
MONTAGU BARSTOW. 

!Containing carefully selected 
Stories, beautifully Illustrated 
with one or more Fine Art 
Engravings on every page. 



Blue cloth gilt, gilt edges, 
large crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

Dean's Fairy Book. 

A Companion to the ' ' Doyle 
Fairy Book." This volume, 
which makes a splendid pre- 
sentation book for a child, 
contains most of the favourite 
Fairy Tales of childhood, 
drawn from Perrault, old chap 
books, and the "Arabian 
Nights." Such favourites as 
"Sleeping Beauty," "Alad- 
din," "Valentine and Orson," 
"Hop o' my Thumb," and 
"Jack the Giant Killer," are 
included in its pages, and the 
book is enriched with numer- 
ous excellent Illustrations by 
able Artists. 

Crown 8vo,bandsomely bound, 

cloth gilt, gilt edges, 5s. 

THE 

Doyle Fairy Book. 

Consisting of 29 Fairy Tales. 
Translated from various 
Languages by Anthony R. 
Montalba. With 34 Illus- 
trations by Richard Doyle, 
a Memoir of Doyle, and an 
Introduction. 



'QUEEN MAB' y 

SERIES OF 
FAIRY TALES 

Size 6:2 by 3-3 inches. 

Handsomely bound, 
cloth gilt and colour, J*:! 
gilt edges, Is. each. i-l 

Uletkaand the White fcr. 
Lizard. s 

2. K 

The Enchanted Cat. fcr- 

3- 
Fairy Land's Beauty. 

Beautifully Illustrated 

by the 

Baroness Orczy and 

Montagu Barstow, 

with over 

90 Illustrations. 




ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE POST FREE. 



AD. II 



London : DEAN & SON, Ltd., i6oa Fleet Street, E.C. 



THE VOLUME OF THE SEASON 



FACSIMILES OF 

DRAWINGS AND STUDIES 



BY 



LORD LEIGHTON, P.R.A. 

This Magnificent Volume, which contains Forty- 
Reproductions of the Choicest Studies left by 
Lord Leighton, and Designs for his most Im- 
portant Pictures, will be published December i 

This, the only Edition, is strictly limited to 500 Copies, in Folio, 
f or all Countries, of which a large number are already sold 

The price prior to publication is Three Guineas ; 
upon publication, Four Guineas net 

THE FINE ART SOCIETY, 148 New Bond Street, London 

and MACMILLAN & CO., London and New York 

MESSRS. BELLS' NEW BOOKS. 



Two Vols., imperial 8vo, 50s. net. 

A HISTORY OF RENAISSANCE ARCHITEC- 
TURE in England. A.D. 1500-1800. By Reginald Blom- 
field, M.A., Author of "The Formal Garden in England." With 
150 Illustrations from Drawings by the Author, and go Plates from. 
Photographs and Old Prints and Drawings. 
" Two handsome and lavishly illustrated volumes. . . . Mr. Blomneld 
writes well and with admirable lucidity, and has acquitted himself of a 
great task, spread over a wide field, with good judgment and an educated 
taste." — Standard. 

" Mr. Blomfield's book is the most thorough and scholarly contribution 
to the literature of English architecture which we remember for many 
years." — Daily Chronicle. 

Imperial 8vo, 25s. net. | 

WILLIAM MORRIS : His Art, his Writings, and 

his Public Life. By Aymer Vallance, M.A., F.S.A. With 60 
Illustrations, including Coloured Frontispiece and Portrait. 
" This is, as it ought to be, a beautiful book. It is printed in a simple 
and beautiful tvpe, and illustrated by plates of Morris's designs or 
finished results in nearly all the arts of which he was a master. It 
contains a reproduction of a good photograph, and a complete list of 
everything that Morris wrote. . . . It is a book which for its substance 
should be read by every true workman, that is to say by every one who 
is so fortunate as to be able to feel any genuine pleasure or enthusiasm 
in his work.'* — Daily Chronicle. 

Narrow Crown 4to. 

THE GLASGOW SCHOOL OF PAINTING. 

By David Martin. With Introduction by Francis Newbury. 
Crown 4to. With Critical Notices of W. Y. Macgregor, James 
Guthrie, James Lavery, E. A. Walton, E. A. Hornel, and 
other leading Artists of the School, and about 60 Illustrations 
selected from their most important Works. [In the press. 

Large post 8vo. 6s. 

SHAKESPEARE'S HEROINES. Characteristics 

of Women. By Mrs. Jameson. Illustrated with 25 Collotype 
Reproductions of Portraits of celebrated Actresses in the various 
Characters, and Photogravure Frontispiece, Miss Ellen Terry as 
Lady Macbeth, by John Sargent, R.A. (by kind permission of 
Sir Henry Irving). 

Small Colombier 8vo, 25s. net. 

THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH: His Life and 

Works. By Mrs. Arthur Bell (N. D'Anvers). With 58 
Illustrations in Photogravure and Half-tone. Binding by Gleeson 
White. 



VASARI'S 



Four Vols., pott 4to, 36s. net. 

LIVES. A Selection of Seventy of 



the Lives. Edited and Annotated in the Light of Modern Dis- 
coveries by E. H. and E. W. Blashfield and A. A. Hopkins. 

Zhc JSnbymion Bevies. 
POEMS BY JOHN KEATS. Illustrated and 

Decorated by Robert Anning Bell. With an Introduction by 
Professor Walter Raleigh, M.A. Post 8vo, 7s. 6d. 
"Such an edition of Keats as this will be a joy forever." — Birmingham 
Gazette. 

"The book has been got out with taste. It is printed in bold type, 
on strong paper, bound in ornamental boards, and very prettily illus- 
trated." — Scotsman. 

" For the drawings we have nothing but praise." — Globe. 

POEMS BY ROBERT BROWNING. Illustrated 

and Decorated by Byam Shaw. With an Introduction by Richard 
Garnett, LL.D., C.ti. Post 8vo, 7s. fed. 

Also a Limited Edition on Japanese Vellum, 21s. net. 

Zbe aonnoissent Series. 

NEW VOLUMES. 
Demy 8vo. 

BRITISH HISTORICAL PORTRAITS. Some 

Notes on the Painted Portraits of Celebrated Characters. By H. B. 
Wheatley. With 71 Illustrations taken direct from the Originals 
at the National Portrait Gallery and elsewhere. 10s. 6d. net. 
"A very conscientious, comprehensive, and valuable book is Mr. H. B. 
Wheatley 's ' Historical Portraits.' His handsome volume is, moreover, 
richly illustrated with many interesting portraits, excellently reproduced, 
which no one can fail to appreciate. As a contribution towards a study 
of what is undoubtedly an important branch of our national history Mr. 
Wheatley's painstaking and intelligent work is worthy of all commenda- 
tion. "—Pall Mall Gazette. 

PORTRAIT MINIATURES, from the Time of 

Holbein (1631) to that of Sir William Ross (t86o). A Handbook 
for Collectors. By G. C. Williamson, Litt.D., Author of "John 
Russell, R.A.," "Richard Cosway, R.A.," &c. With 194 Illustra- 
tions. 12s 6d. net. 

Iftew, IDolume of tbe TBi=%\biis Series. 
DECORATIVE HERALDRY: By G. W. Eve. 

With 188 Illustrations, including 4 in Colour and 1 Copperplate 



Imperial i6mo, 10s. 6d. net. 

Full Prospectuses Post Free on Application. 

London: GEORGE BELL & SONS, York Street, Covent Garden. 

ad. Ill 



David Nutt, 270=271 Strand, London. 



Mr. Nutt begs to call attention afresh to his artistic Gift- 
Books for Children. He has aimed at providing good literature, good art, 
legible type, durable paper and attractive binding, at as moderate prices as are 
compatible with proper remuneration of writers and artists. Mr. Nutt's 
children s books are intended for children in the first place, but also for all who 
can appreciate refined and sane black-and-white Illustration. Mr. Nutt has 
not essayed to popularise sham decadent art or sham archaic typography for 
the nursery and schoolroom, but has endeavoured to produce books which every 
lover of healthy art and literattire can place on his shelves with satisfaction. 

Among the illustrators whom Mr. Nutt has introduced to the public may 
be noted Mr. John D. Batten, Miss Winifred Smith, and Mr. Archie 

Macgregor. 

Ai,wtg Mr. Null's publications for the Christmas of iSgj are : 



Fairy Tales from the Far North. By P. C. 

AsbjornSEN. Translated by H. L. Beaekstad. With 
94 Illustrations by E. Werenskiold and T. Kittelsen. 
The only English edition authorised by Asbjornsen's repre- 
sentatives. A beautifully printed volume of upwards of 330 
pages, on paper of the finest quality, in specially designed 
cloth cover, small 4to ( " Wonder Voyages " size). 6s. 
*#* Mainly from the second series of Asbjnrnsen s " Eventyrf 
comparatively little known in this country. The illustra- 
tions have excited keen admiration throughout Scandinavia 
for their vigorous, racy and genuinely national character, 
and will be appreciated by artists as well as by children. 
The hiimour and spirit which make Asbjornsen's one of the 
best collections of popular tales ever issued are too well known 
to reguire recommendation. 

A New Book by Judge PARRY and ARCHIE 
MACGREGOR. 

The First Book Of Krab. Christmas Stories 
for Young and Old. By His Honour Judge Edward Abbott 
Parry. With Illustrations by A?<chie Macgregor. A 
beautiful volume in square crown 8vo. Printed at the 
Ballantyne Press, on special paper. Bound in specially 
designed cloth cover. 3s. 6d. 

*** Judqe Parry's new work will be welcomed as heartily as 
" Katawampus " (35. 6d.) and " Butterscotia " (6s.). 



The Giant Crab, and other Tales from Old 

INDIA. Retold by W. H. D. Rouse. With many Full- 
page Plates, Vignettes, Tailpieces, and Illustrations in the 
Text by W. Robinson. A beautiful volume in square 
crown Svo. Printed at the Ballantyne Press on special 
paper. Bound in specially designed cloth cover. 3s. 6d. 

tt # * Mr. Rouse, one of the small band of Cambridge scholars 
engaged in translating into English the oldest story-book in 
the world, the " Jatakas,'' or Buddhist Birth Stories, has 
thought that an English version of some of these products op 
old Indian wit and wisdom, which were adapted over 2000 
years ago to the requirements of Buddha's teaching, could not 
fail to please English children. One of the most famous of 
the Jatakas is already well known to the English public, 
forming, as it does, the original of " Brer Rabbit and the 
Tar Baby." Mr. Rouse has freely adapted the somewhat 
prosy originals, and has produced a bright and amusing 
volume. 



The History of Reynard the Fox. With some 

Account of bis Friends and Enemies. Turned into English 
Verse by F. S. Ellis. With Illustrative Devices by 
Walter Crane. Square crown 8vo. Printed at the 
Chiswick Press, on hand-made paper. Cloth, 6s. 



Mr. Nutt's Catalogue of Children 's and Illustrated Gift-Books, containing full particulars and Specimens of 
Illustrations of following works, will be sent on application. 



British Empire. By 

J. D. Batten. Four Vols, at 



Fairy Tales of the 

J. Jacobs. Illustrated by 
3s. 6d. each. 

The Book of Wonder Voyages. By J. Jacobs. 

Illustrated by J. D. Batten. 6s. 

Katawampus : Its Treatment and Cure. By 
Judge E. A. Parry. Illustrated by Archie Macgregor. 
3s. 6d. 

English Singing- Games. Collected and Edited 

by Alice Bertha Gomme. Pictured by Winifred Smith. 
Two vols., 3s. 6d. each. 

ButterSCOtia ; or, A Cheap Trip to Fairyland. 
By Judge E. A. Parry. Illustrated by Archie Mac- 
gregor. 6s. 

Maori Tales and Legends. Collected and Re- 
told by Mrs. K. Mc Clark. With 18 Illustrations by 
R. Atkinson. 
AD. IV 



The Happy Prince, and Other Fairy Tales. 

By Oscar Wilde. Illustrated by Walter Crane and 
Jacomb Hood. 3s. 6d. 

Nursery Songs and Rhymes of England. 

Pictured in Black and White by Winifred Smith. Small 
4to. Printed on hand-made paper. In specially designed 
cloth cover, 3s. 6d. 

Good Night. Verses by Dollie Radford. 

Designs by Louis Davis. Forty pages entirely designed 
by the Artist and pulled on the finest and the thickest 
cartridge paper. Boards and canvas back with label, 
2S. 6d. 

Mediaeval Legends. Being a Gift-Book to the 

Children of England, of Five Old-World Tales from 
France and Germany. Demy 8vo. Designed cloth cover, 
3s. 6d 

etc . etc. 



Messrs. Bliss, Sands & Co.'s List 

HANDSOME CHRISTMAS GIFT=BOOKS. 



NOW READ V 

A MAGNIFICENT ART WORK. 

Christ and His Mother in Italian Art. 

Edited by JULIA CARTWRIGHT (Mrs. Ady). 

With an Introduction by Rev. ROBERT EYTON (Canon of Westminster). 
Consisting of 50 Large-sized Photogravures, all in duplicate, making in all WO Plates. 

The subjects represented are all the most celebrated Madonnas, Holy Families, Nativities, Crucifixions, and other f 'subjects 
portraying trie various incidents in the Life of Our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Special permission has been obtained for ihe Reproduction of the Leonardo Cartoon from the President of the Royal 
Academy, and of the Cowper Madonna from the Right Honourable Earl Cowper, K.G. 

The Work contains Biographies of all the Artists whose Works are included, together with Descriptive and Historical 
N tes of the Works themselves. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS CAN NOW BE RECEIVED FOR THE ABOVE WORK. PROSPECTUSES CAN BE OBTAINED AT ANY BOOKSELLERS'. 

Specimen Plates can be Viewed at the Publishers' Offices, op at the Lemercier Gallery, 35 New Bond Street, W. 

The Binding is of the best Roman Vellum and Sky-Blue Buckram. 

PRICE TEN GUINEAS NET. 

Below is a specimen of one of the photogravures ', reproduced as a half-tone block of one quarter the size of the original. 




1*1 et A. 



GREEK ART ON GREEK SOIL. 



ART. 

By James M. Hoppin, Professor oi the History of Art in the Yale 



University With 12 Illustrations, demy 8vo, bound in cloth extra, gilt top, price 7s. 6d 

BOOK LOVERS' CLASSICS. 

NEWVVOLUMES. 



THE SENTIMENTAL JOURNEY. By Laurence 

Sterne. A veritable Edition de Luxe. With over 80 New Illus- 
trations by T. H. Robinson and Photogravure Frontispiece of the 
Author. Printed on fine surface art-plate paper, typographical 
ornaments in red and black, and bound in cloth extra, gilt top, or 
gilt edges. Price 2s. 6d. and 3s. 6d- 

THE SCARLET LETTER. By Nathaniel Haw- 

Thorne. With 8 New Full-page Illustrations by T. H. Robinson. 
Bound in cloth extra, gilt top or gilt edges. Price 2s. fid. and 
3s. 6d. 



CRANFORD.] .By Mrs. Gaskell. With 16 Fu 

page Illustrations, specially Drawn for this Edition by T. H. 
Robinson, and separately printed on the finest-surfaced plate- 
. paper. 320 pages, large crown 8vo. Price 2s. fid. and 3s. 6d. 

THE VICAR OF , WAKEFIELD. By Olive* 

Goldsmith. With careful Reproductions of the whole of the 
Illustrations by William Mulready, R.A. A Facsimile and 
Verbatim Reprint of the First Mulready Edition. 320 pages, large 
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Architecture and Sculpture: PAGE 

" The Well in the Wall. " A Drawing by Laurence Housman n 
"Pallas." Chryselephantine Sculpture by J. Dillens . . 13 
"Medusa." Chryselephantine Sculpture by Th. Vincotte 15 
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A Note by Olivier Georges Destree . . . .17 
" Godmanchester Church." A Sketch by Beresford Pite . 23 

Literature : 

" Novembre." (La Mort Chasseresse. ) A Poem by Francis 

Viele-Griffin 27 

",A Blessed Damozel." A Story by J. E. Woodmeald " 
"Night-piece." A Poem by Frank Freeman . 

Drawing, Painting, and Engraving : 

"Vivien and Merlin." A Painting by E. Burne-Jones 
" Forruna.'' A Drawing by Alan Wright . 
"Solvitur Ambulando." A Drawing by Charles Pears 
"A View of Tokaido." A Colour- Print by Hiroshige 

'A Landscape." A Colour-Print by Hiroshige 
" Hiroshige." An Appreciation by Charles Holmes . 

' Emilie. " A Drawing by Dion Calthrop . 
A Summer Night." A Drawing by J. J. Guthrie 

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Conducted by the Department of Science and Art 

Geometry 

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Sciography 

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Design 

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Courses of 12 Lessons in the above Subjects 

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AD, XV 



BOOKS FOR CHILDREN. 



WORKS BY THE LATE MRS. EWING. 

Snapdragons: a Tale of Christmas Eve and Old Father 
Christmas. Illustrated by Gordon Browne. Small 4to, paper 
boards, is. 

The Peace HSgg, and a Christmas Mumming 

PLAY. With Illustrations by Gordon Browne. Small 4to, 
paper boards, is. 

Mary's Meadow, and Letters from a Little Gar- 

DEN. Illustrated by Gordon Browne. Small 4to, paper 
boards, is. 

Lob Lie-by-t.he-Fire; or, the Luck of Lingborough. 

With Illustrations by the late R. Caldecott. Small 4to, paper 
boards, is, 

Story of a Short Life (The). With Illustrations by 

Gordon Browne. Small 4to, paper boards, is. 
Daddy Darwin's Dovecot. A Country Tale. With 

numerous Illustrations by the late R. Caldecott. Small 4to, 

paper boards, is. 
Dandelion Clocks, and other Tales. With Illustrations 

by Gordon Browne and other Artists. Small 4to, paper boards, 

is. 
Jackanapes. With Seventeen Illustrations by the late 

Randolph Caldecott. Small 4to, paper boards, is. 
Old-Fashioned Fairy Tales. Foolscap 4to, with 

numerous Woodcuts, cloth boards, 3s. 6d. 
Brothers of Pity, and other Tales of Beasts and Men. 

Crown 8vo, with numerous Illustrations, cloth boards, 2s. 6d. 



Juliana Horatia Ewing and Her Books. By 

Horatia K. F. Gatty. With a Portrait by George Reid, 
R.S.A. Illustrated by Facsimiles from Mrs. Ewing's sketches, 
and a cover designed by the late R. Caldecott. Small 4to, paper 
boards, is. 

LIBRARY EDITION OF MRS. EWING'S WORKS. 

Complete in Eighteen Uniform Volumes. 

Crown Svo, half cloth, 2s. 6d. each. 

The Complete Series, Volumes I. — XVIII., in a cloth case, 48s. 

This is the only Complete Edition of Mrs. Eiuing^s Works. 

TJte last two Volumes contain much new matter. 



WORKS BY MRS. MOLESWORTH. 

Friendly Joey, and other Stories. With Coloured Illus- 
trations. Small4to. cloth boards, 2s. 6d. 

Opposite Neighbours, and other Stories. Coloured 
Illustrations. Small 410, cloth boards, 2s. 6d. 

The Thirteen Little Black Pigs, and other Stories. 

Illustrated in Colours. Small 4to, cloth boards, 2s. 6d. 

The Man with the Pan Pipes, &c With Coloured 

Illustrations. Small 410, cloth boards, 2s. 6d. 

The Lucky Ducks, and other Tales. With Coloured 
Illustrations. Small 4to, cloth boards, 2s. 6d. 

Twelve Tiny Tales. With numerous Illustrations printed 

in Colours. Small 4to, cloth boards, 2s. 6d. 
A House to Let. With Coloured Illustrations. Small 

4to, cloth boards, 2s. 6d. 

Randolph Caldecott's Painting-Book, Small 4to, 

paper boards, is. 
A Selection of R. Caldecott's best Pictures, with Outlines opposite 
each for Colouring. 

Select Fables from La Fontaine. For the use of the 

Young. Beautifully Illustrated in Colours by M. B. De Monvel. 
Royal 4to, cloth boards, 6s. 

Nursery Rhymes and Fables. With Sixty Page 

Illustrations (Thirty in Colours and Thirty in Monochrome). By 
W. J. Morgan. Small 4to, paper boards, is. 6d. 
The Zoo. By the late Rev. J. G. Wood and the Rev. T. 
Wood. Series I. to IV. in One Vol. Sm. 4to, cloth, bevelled bds., 6s. 

Picture Book.— Animals. By the late Rev. C. A. Johns. 

With numerous Woodcuts. Fcap 4to, ornamental paper bds., is. 6d. 

The Days of the Pose, and other Stories. By Mrs. 

Hallward. With coloured Illustrations. Sm. 4to, paper bds., 6d. 

King Pepito, The Royal Progress of. By Beatrice 
F. Cresswei.l. Illus.by Kate Greenawav. Sm.4to, paper bds., is. 

GOLDEN SUNBEAMS. A Monthly Magazine for 
Children on Church Lines. Small 4to, 16 pages. Illustrated by 
Charles Robinson, id. 

Edition de luxe, in red and black, on hand-made paper, 4d. 
Volume for 1897, containing Nos. 1 to 12. Cloth boards is. 6d. 

Edition de luxe, cloth boards, 4s. 



London 



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"THE HEIR TO FAIRY-LAND" 
FROM A WATER-COLOUR BY 
ROBERT HALLS 









THE STUDIO 



SPECIAL WINTER-NUMBER 1897-8 



CHILDREN'S BOOKS AND 
THEIR ILLUSTRATORS. 
BY GLEESON WHITE. 
There are some themes that by 
their very wealth of suggestion appal 
the most ready writer. The emotions which 
they arouse, the mass of pleasant anecdote they 
recall, the ghosts of far-off delights they summon, 
are either too obvious to be worth the trouble of 
description or too evanescent to be expressed in 
dull prose. Swift, we are told (perhaps a little too 
frequently), could write beautifully of a broom- 
stick ; which may strike a common person as a 
marvel of dexterity. After a while, the journalist 
is apt to find that it is the perfect theme which 
proves to be the hardest to treat adequately. 
Clothe a broomstick with fancies, even of the 



flimsiest tissue paper, and you get something more 
or less like a fairy-king's sceptre ; but take the 
Pompadour's fan, or the haunting effect of twilight 
over the meadows, and all you can do in words 
seems but to hide its original beauties. We know 
that Mr. Austin Dobson was able to add graceful 
wreaths even to the fan of the Pompadour, and 
that another writer is able to impart to the misty 
twilight not only the eerie fantasies it shows the 
careless observer, but also a host of others that only 
a poet feels, and that only a poet knows how to 
prison within his cage of printed syllables. Indeed, 
of the theme of the present discourse has not the 
wonder-working Robert Louis Stevenson sung of 
"Picture Books in Winter" and "The Land of 
Story Books," so truly and clearly that it is 
dangerous for lesser folk to attempt essays in their 
praise ? All that artists have done to amuse the 




THE "MONKEY-BOOK 



[By permission of James H. Stone, Esq., J-P-) 



A FAVOURITE IN THE NURSERY 



Children's Books 



august monarch "King Baby" (who, pictured by 
Mr. Robert Halls, is fitly enthroned here by way 
of frontispiece) during the playtime of his imma- 
turity is too big a subject for our space, and can 
but be indicated in rough outline here. 

Luckily, a serious study of the evolution of the 
child's book already exists. Since the bulk of 
this number was in type, I lighted by chance 
upon " The Child and his Book," by Mrs. E. M. 
Field, a most admirable volume which traces its 
subject from times before the Norman conquest to 
this century. Therein we find full accounts of 
MSS. designed for teaching purposes, of early 
printed manuals, and of the mass of literature 
intended to impress "the Fear of the Lord and of 
the Broomstick." Did space allow, the present 
chronicle might be enlivened with many an excerpt 
which she has culled from out-of-the-way sources. 
But the temptation to quote must be controlled. 
It is only fair to add 
that in that work there 
is a very excellent 
chapter to "Some Il- 
lustrators of Children's 
Books," although its 
main purpose is the 
text of the books. One 
branch has found its 
specialist and its ex- 
haustive monograph, 
in Mr. Andrew Tuer's 
sumptuous volumes 
devoted to " The 
Horn Book." 

Perhaps there is no 
pleasure the modern 
" grown-up " person 
envies the youngsters 
of the hour as he 
envies them the shoals 





" CRUSOE ANn XURY ESCAPING 
FROM AN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY CHAP-BOOI- 




CRUSOE SETS SAU. ON HIS EVENTFUL VOYAGE 
FROM AN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY CHAP-BOOK 

4 



"ROBINSON CRUSOE. THE WRECK 
FROM AN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY CHAP-BOOK 

of delightful books 
which publishers pre- 
pare for the Christ- 
mas tables of lucky 
children. If he be 
old enough to remem- 
ber Mrs. Trimmer's 
" History of the 
Robins," "The Fair- 
child Family," or that 
Poly-technically in- 
spired romance, the 
" Swiss Family Rob- 
inson," he feels that 
a certain half-hearted 
approval of more 
dreary volumes is 
possibly due to the 
glamour which middle 
age casts upon the 
past. It is said that 
even Barbauld's " Evenings at Home " and " Sand- 
ford and Merton " (the anecdotes only, I imagine) 
have been found toothsome dainties by unjaded 
youthful appetites ; but when he compares these 
with the books of the last twenty years, he wishes 
he could become a child again to enjoy their sweets 
to the full. 

Now nine-tenths of this improvement is due to 
artist and publisher ; although it is obvious that 
illustrations imply something to illustrate, and, as a 
rule (not by any means without exception), the 
better the text the better the pictures. Years 
before good picture-books there were good stories, 
and these, whether they be the classics of the 
nursery, the laureates of its rhyme, the unknown 
author of its sagas, the born story-tellers — whether 
they date from prehistoric cave-dwellers, or are of 
our own age, like Charles Kingsley or Lewis 
Carroll — supply the text to spur on the artist to 
his best achievements. 



and their Illustrators 



It is mainly a labour of love to infuse pic- 
tures intended for childish eyes with qualities 
that pertain to art. We like to believe that 
Walter Crane, Caldecott, Kate Greenaway 
and the rest receive ample appreciation from 
the small people. That they do in some 
cases is certain ; but it is also quite as evident 
that the veriest daub, if its subject be attrac- 
tive, is enjoyed no less thoroughly. There 
are prigs of course, the children of the " prig- 
norant," who babble of Botticelli, and profess 
to disdain any picture not conceived with 
" high art " mannerism. Yet even these will 
forget their pretence, and roar over a Comic 
Cuts found on the seat of a railway carriage, 
or stand delighted before some unspeakable 
poster of a melodrama. It is well to face the 
plain fact that the most popular illustrated 
books which please the children are not 
always those which satisfy the critical adult. 
As a rule it is the " grown-ups " who buy ; 
therefore with no wish to 
be-little the advance in 
nursery taste, one must 
own that at present its 
improvement is chiefly 
owing to the active ener- 
gies of those who give, 
and is only passively 
tolerated by those who 
accept. Children awak- 
ing to the marvel that re- 
creates a familiar object 
by a few lines and 
blotches on a piece of 





TWO CHILDREN IN 
EIGHTEENTH-CE 



THE W 
NTURY 



OOD. FROM AN 
CHAP-BOOK 




' SIR RICHARD WHITTINGTON. FROM AN EIGHTEENTH- 
CENTURY CHAP-BOOK 



'THE TRUE TALE OF ROBIN HOOD. FROM AN 

EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY CHAP-BOOK 



paper, are not unduly 
exigent. Their own 
primitive diagrams, like 
a badly drawn Euclidean 
problem, satisfy their idea 
of studies from the life. 
Their schemes of colour 
are limited to harmonies 
in crimson lake, cobalt 
and gamboge, their skies 
are very blue, their grass 
arsenically green, and 
their perspective as erratic 
as that of the Chinese. 
In fact, unpopular though it may be to 
project such a theory, one fancies that the 
real educational power of the picture-book is 
upon the elders, and thus, that it undoubt- 
edly helps to raise the standard of domestic 
taste in art. But, on the other hand, whether 
his art is adequately appreciated or not, what 
an unprejudiced and wholly spontaneous ac- 
claim awaits the artist who gives his best to 
the little ones ! They do not place his work 
in portfolios or locked glass cases ; they 
thumb it to death, surely the happiest of all 
fates for any printed book. To see his 
volumes worn out by too eager votaries, what 
could an author or artist wish for more ? 
The extraordinary devotion to a volume of 
natural history, which after generations of use 
has become more like a mop-head than a 
book, may be seen in the reproduction of a 
" monkey-book " here illustrated ; this curious 
result being caused by sheer affectionate 
thumbing of its leaves, until the dog-ears and 
rumpled pages turned the cube to a globular 
mass, since flattened by being packed away. 

5 



Children s Books 



So children love picture-books, not as bibliophiles 
would consider wisely, but too well. 

To delight one of the least of these, to add a 
new joy to the crowded miracles of childhood, 
were no less worth doing than to leave a Sistine 
Chapel to astound a somewhat bored procession of 
tourists, or to have written a classic that sells by 
thousands and is possessed unread by all save an 
infinitesimal percentage of its owners. 

When Randolph Caldecott died, a minor poet, 
unconsciously paraphrasing Garrick's epitaph, 
wrote : " For loss of him the laughter of the 
children will grow less." I quote the line from 
memory, perhaps incorrectly ; if so, its author will, 
I feel sure, forgive the unintentional mangling. 
Did the laughter of the children grow less?'" 
Happily one can be quite sure it did not. So 
long as any inept draughtsman can scrawl a few 
lines which they accept as a symbol of an engine, 
an elephant or a pussy cat, so long will the great 
army of invaders who are our predestined con- 
querors be content to laugh anew at the request of 
any one, be he good or mediocre, who caters for 
them. 

It is a pleasant and yet a saddening thought 
to remember that we were once recruits of this 
omnipotent army that wins always our lands and 
our treasures. Now, when grown up, whether we 
are millionaires or paupers, they have taken fortress 
by fortress with the treasures therein, our picture- 
books of one sort are theirs, and one must yield 
presently to the babies as they grow up, even our 
criticism, for they will make their own standards of 
worth and unworthiness despite all our efforts to 
control their verdict. 

If we are conscious of being "up-to-date" in 1900, 
we may be quite sure that by 1925 we shall be ousted 
by a newer generation, and by 2000 forgotten. Long- 
before even that, the children we now try to amuse or 
to educate, to defend at all costs, or to pray for as 
we never prayed before — they will be the masters. 
It is, then, not an ignoble thing to do one's very 
best to give our coming rulers a taste of the 
kingdom of art, to let them unconsciously discover 
that there is something outside common facts, 
intangible and not to be reduced to any rule, 
which may be a lasting pleasure to those who 
care to study it. 

It is evident, as one glances back over the cen- 
turies, that the child occupies a new place in the 
world to-day. Excepting possibly certain royal 
infants, we do not find that great artists of the past 
addressed themselves to children. Are there any 
children's books illustrated by Diirer, Burgmair, 
Altdorfer, Jost Amman, or the little masters of 
Germany ? Among the Florentine woodcuts do we 
find any designed for children? Did Rembrandt etch 
for them, or Jacob Beham prepare plates for their 
amusement ? So far as I have searched, no single 
instance has rewarded me. It is true that the 
naivete of much early work tempts one to believe 
6 




"AN AMERICAN MAN AND WOMAN IN THEIR PROPER 

HABITS." ILLUSTRATION FROM " A MUSEUM FOR YOUNG 

GENTLEMEN AND LADIES " (s. CROWDER. 1790) 




"THE WALLS OF BABYLON. ILLUSTRATION FROM 

"A MUSEUM FOR YOUNG GENTLEMEN AND LADIES" 

(S. CROWDER. 1790) 



that it was designed for babies. But the context 
shows that it was the unlettered adult, not the 
juvenile, who was addressed. As the designs, 
obviously prepared for children, begin to appear, 
they are almost entirely educational and by no 
means the work of the best artists of the period. 
Even when they come to be numerous, their object 
is seldom to amuse ; they are didactic, and as a 
rule convey solemn warnings. The idea of a 
draughtsman of note setting himself deliberately to 
please a child would have been inconceivable not 
so many years ago. To be seen and not heard 
was the utmost demanded of the little ones even 
as late as the beginning of this century, when 
illustrated books designed especially for their in- 
struction were not infrequent. 

As Mr. Theodore Watts-Dunton pointed out in 
his charming essay, " The New Hero," which ap- 
peared in the English Illustrated Magazine (Dec. 
1 883), the child was neglected even by the art of 
literature until Shakespeare furnished portraits at 
once vivid, engaging, and true in Arthur and in 



and their Illustrators 



Mamillus. In the same essay he goes on to say 
of the child — the new hero : 

" And in art, painters and designers are vying 
with the poets and with each other in accommo- 
dating their work to his well-known matter-of-fact 
tastes and love of simple directness. Having dis- 
covered that the New Hero's ideal of pictorial re- 
presentation is of that high dramatic and business- 
like kind exemplified in the Bayeux tapestry, Mr. 
Caldecott, Mr. Walter Crane, Miss Kate Green- 
away, Miss Dorothy Tennant, have each tried to 
surpass the other in appealing to the New Hero's 
love of real business in art — treating him, indeed, as 
though he were Hotei, the Japanese god of enjoy- 
ment — giving him as much colour, as much 
dramatic action, and as little perspective as is 
possible to man's finite capacity in this line. Some 
generous art-critics have even gone so far indeed 
as to credit an entire artistic movement, that of 
pre-Raphaelism, with a benevolent desire to ac- 
commodate art to the New Hero's peculiar ideas 
upon perspective. But this is a ' soft impeach- 
ment ' born of that loving kindness for which art- 
critics have always been famous." 




' mercury and the woodman." illustration 
I'-rom "bewick's select fables." by thomas 

BEWICK (17S4) 





LITTLE ANTHONY." ILLUSTRATION FROM "THE 
LOOKING-GLASS OF THE MIND." BY THOMAS 
BEWICK (1792) 



,. cr-^-'A. g-XtQh jVN^ y ^>Li, 




"the brother and sister." illustration 
from " bewick's select fables." by thomas 

BEWICK (17S4) 



"LITTLE ADOLHIUS." ILLUSTRATION FROM "THE 

LOOKING-GLASS OF THE MIND." BY THOMAS 

BEWICK (1792) 

It would be out of place here to project any 
theory to account for this more recent homage 
paid to children, but it is quite certain that a similar 
number of The Studio could scarce have been 
compiled a century ago, for there was practically no 
material for it. In fact the tastes of children as a 
factor to be considered in life are well-nigh as 
modern as steam or the electric light, and far less 
ancient than printing with movable types, which of 
itself seems the second great event in the history of 
humanity, the use of fire being the first. 

To leave generalities and come to particulars, as 
we dip into the stores of earlier centuries the 
broadsheets reveal almost nothing intended for 
children — the many Robin Hood ballads, for 
example, are decidedly meant for grown-up people ; 
and so in the eighteenth century we find its chap- 
books of " Guy, Earl of Warwick," " Sir Bevis, of 
Southampton," "Valentine and Orson," are still 
addressed to the adult; while it is more than doubt- 
ful whether even the earliest editions in chap- 
book form of " Tom Thumb," and " Whining- 

7 



Children s Books 



ton " and the rest, now the property of 
the nursery, were really published for 
little ones. That they were the " light 
reading " of adults, the equivalent of to- 
day's Ally Sloper or the penny dreadful, 
is much more probable. No doubt 
children who came across them had a 
surreptitious treat, even as urchins of 
both sexes now pounce with avidity 
upon stray copies of the ultra-popular 
and so-called comic papers. But you 
could not call Ally Sloper, that Punchi- 
nello of the Victorian era — who has 
received the honour of an elaborate 
article in the Nineteenth Century — a 
child's hero, nor is his humour of a sort 
always that childhood should understand 
— " Unsweetened Gin," the " Broker's 
Man," and similar subjects, for example. 
It is quite possible that respectable 
people did not care for their babies to 
read the chap-books of the eighteenth 
century any more than they like them 
now to study " halfpenny comics " ; and 
that they were, in short, kitchen litera- 
ture, and not infantile. Even if the 
intellectual standard of those days was 
on a par in both domains, it does not 
prove that the reading of the kitchen 
and nursery was interchangeable. 

Before noticing any pictures in detail 
from old sources or new, it is well to 
explain that as a rule only those show- 
ing some attempt to adapt the drawing 
to a child's taste have been selected. 
Mere dull transcripts of facts please 
children no less ; but here space forbids 
their inclusion. Otherwise nearly all 
modern illustration would come into our 
scope. IIL 

A search through the famous Rox- 
burghe collection of broadsheets dis- 
covered nothing that could be fairly 
regarded as a child's publication. The chap- 
books of the eighteenth century have been 
adequately discussed in Mr. John Ashton's admir- 
able monograph, and from them a few "cuts" 
are here reproduced. Of course, if one takes the 
standard of education of these days as the test, 
many of those curious publications would appear 
to be addressed to intelligence of the most juvenile 
sort. Yet the themes as a rule show unmistakably 
that children of a larger growth were catered for, as, 
for instance, "Joseph and his Brethren," "The 
Holy Disciple," " The Wandering Jew," and those 
earlier pamphlets which are reprints or new versions 
of books printed by Wynkyn de Worde, Pynson, 
and others of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth 
centuries. 

In one, " The Witch of the Woodlands," 
appears a picture of little people dancing in a 






t^rP .AtffWSte fit-'. 



Jlenry quitting , ?tJtr><>? '. 



ISTRATION EROM "SKETCHES OE JUVENILE CHARACTERS' 
(E WALLIS. iiilS) 



fairy ring, which might be supposed at first sight 
to be an illustration of a nursery tale, but the text 
describing a Witch's Sabbath, rapidly dispels the 
idea. Nor does a version of the popular Faust 
legend — " Dr. John Faustus " — appear to be edify- 
ing for young people. This and " Friar Bacon " 
are of the class which lingered the longest — the 
magical and oracular literature. Even to-day it is 
quite possible that dream-books and prophetical 
pamphlets enjoy a large sale ; but a few years ago 
many were to be found in the catalogues of pub- 
lishers who catered for the million. It is not very 
long ago that the Company of Stationers omitted 
hieroglyphics of coming events from its almanacs. 
Many fairy stories which to-day are repeated for 
the amusement of children were regarded as part 
of this literature — the traditional folk-lore which 
often enough survives many changes ol the religious 



and their Illustrators 



faith of a nation, and outlasts much civilisation. 
Others were originally political satires, or social 
pasquinades ; indeed not a few nursery rhymes 
mask allusions to important historical incidents. 
The chap-book form of publication is well adapted 
for the preservation of half-discredited beliefs, of 
charms and prophecies, incantations and cures. 

In "Valentine and Orson," of which a frag- 
ment is extant of a version printed by Wynkyn 
de Worde, we have unquestionably the real fairy 
story. This class of story, however, was not 
addressed directly to children until within the last 
hundred years. That many of the cuts used in 
these chap-books afterwards found their way into 
little coarsely printed duodecimos of eight or six- 
teen pages designed for children is no doubt a 
fact. Indeed the wanderings of these blocks, and 
the various uses to which they were applied, is far 
too vast a theme to touch upon here. For this 
peripatetic habit of old wood-cuts was not even 
confined to the land of their production ; after 
doing duty in one country, they were ready for 
fresh service in another. Often in the chap-books 



INTERJECTIOlSrS 

,1/1 ' itfti.e ■' O.'/rr'.' />}■ / A n,,/, I /ir/i,>/rf / 




T J -f r ■ 



(■S7/;iifW nv/A /'V,j)i'r/:i') 

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S////.,//r//,v/. 




/':/,/.:./„,/ ,v, y ,y, „,/,.,■ ■/.; '/' /,S'.V', 



/r.ut/tfs ,,„;/ jvav, 



TITLE-PAGE OF " THE PATHS OK LEARNING 
(HARRIS AND SON. lS>20) 



■NTllKJEC'LTOXS „r<- ,■.,;■/„,,„„»„„,<. 
t/riirrfinr/ <(/it/ ,>•//, fr/r/i eniofion ,>r' 
///<■ mriitf , eit/ief "/' pattt. n/ea-rtire 

<•'/■ ..■//////•/iv . 



PAGE FROM "THE PATHS OF LEARNING 
(HARRIS AND SON. 1820) 



we meet with the same block as an illustration of 
totally different scenes. 

The cut for the title-page of Robin Hood is a 
fair example of its kind. The Norfolk gentleman's 
"Last Will and Testament" turns out to be a 
rambling rhymed version of the Two Children in 
the Wood. In the first of its illustrations we see 
the dying parents commending their babes to the 
cruel world. The next is a subject taken from 
these lines : 

" Away then went these prily babes rejoycinj; at that tide, 
Rejoycing with a merry mind they should on cock-horse 
ride." 

And in the last, here reproduced, we see them when 

" Their prily lips with blackberries were all besmeared and 
dyed, 
And when they saw the darksome night, they sat them 
down and cried." 

But here it is more probable that it was the 
tragedy which attracted readers, as the Police News 
attracts to-day, and that it became a child's favourite 
by the accident of the robins burying the babes. 

9 



CJiildreiis Books 



The example from the " History of Sir Richard 
Whittington " needs no comment. 

A very condensed version of " Robinson Crusoe " 
has blocks of distinct, if archaic, interest. The 
three here given show a certain sense of decorative 
treatment (probably the result of the artist's in- 
ability to be realistic), which is distinctly amusing. 
One might select hundreds of woodcuts of this 
type, but those here reproduced will serve as well 
as a thousand to indicate their general style. 

Some few of these books have contributed to 
later nursery folk-lore, as, for example, the well 
known " Jack Horner," which is an extract from a 
coarse account of the adventures of a dwarf. 

One quality that is shared by all these earlier 
pictures is their artlessness and often their absolute 
ugliness. Quaint is the highest adjective that fits 
them. In books of the later period not a few 
hlocks of earlier date and of really fine design re- 
appear ; but in the chap-books quite 'prentice 
hands would seem to have been employed, and 
the result therefore is only interesting for its age 
and rarity. So far these pictures need no comment, 
they foreshadow nothing and are derived from 
nothing, so far as their design is concerned. Such 
interest as they have is quite unconcerned with 
art in any way; they are not even sufficiently 
misdirected to act as warnings, but are merely 
clumsy. 

Children's books, as every collector knows, are 
among the most short-lived of all volumes. This 
is more especially true of those with illustrations, 
for their extra attractiveness serves but to degrade 
a comely book into a dog-eared and untidy thing, 
with leaves sere and yellow, and with no 
autumnal grace to mellow their decay. Long 
before this period, however, the nursery artist has 
marked them for his own, and with crimson lake 





LOln^t ;,.- 



ILLUSTRATION TROM "GERMAN POPULAR STORIES. 
BY G. CRUIKSHANK (CHARLES TILT. 1S24) 
10 



ILLUSTRATION KR0M "GERMAN POrUI.AR STORIES. 
BY G. CRUIKSHANK (CHARLES TILT. IS24) 



and Prussian blue stained their pictures in all too 
permanent pigments, that in some cases resist 
every chemical the amateur applies with the vain 
hope of effacing the superfluous colour. 

Of course the disappearance of the vast majority 
of books for children (dating from 1760 to 1830, 
and even later) is no loss to art, although among 
them are some fewwhich are interesting as the 'pren- 
tice work of illustrators who became famous. But 
these are the exceptions. Thanks to the kindness 
of Mr. James Stone, of Birmingham, who has a 
large and most interesting collection of the most 
ephemeral of all sorts — the little penny and two- 
penny pamphlets — it has been possible to refer at 
first hand to hundreds of them. Yet, despite their 
interest as curiosities, their art need not detain us 
here. The pictures are mostly trivial or dull, and 
look like the products of very poorly equipped 
draughtsmen and cheap engravers. Some, in 
pamphlet shape, contain nursery rhymes and little 
stories, others are devoted to the alphabet and 
arithmetic. Amongst them are many printed on 
card, shaped like the cover of a bank-book. These 
were called battledores, but as Mr. Tuer has dealt 
with this class in " The Horn Book " so thoroughly, 
it would be mere waste of time to discuss them 
here. 

Mr. Elkin Mathews also permitted me to run 
through his interesting collection, and among them 
were many noted elsewhere in these pages, but 
the rest, so far as the pictures are concerned, 
do not call for detailed notice. They do, indeed, 
contain pictures of children — but mere "factual" 
scenes, as a rule — without an)- real fun or real 
imagination. Those who wish to look up early 
examples will find a large and entertaining variety 



and their Illustrators 



among " The Pearson Collection " in the National 
Art Library at South Kensington Museum. 

Turning to quite another class, we find " A 
Museum for Young Gentlemen and Ladies " 
(Collins : Salisbury), a typical volume of its kind. 
Its preface begins : " I am very much concerned 
when I see young gentlemen of fortune and quality 
so wholly set upon pleasure and diversions. . . . 
The greater part of our British youth lose their 
figure and grow out of fashion by the time they are 
twenty-five. As soon as the natural gaiety and 
amiableness of the young man wears off they have 
nothing left to recommend, but lie by the rest of 
their lives among the lumber and refuse of their 
species " — a promising start for a moral lecture, 
which goes on to implore those who are in the 
flower of their youth to " labour at those accom- 
plishments which may set off their persons when 
their bloom is gone." 

The compensations for old age appear to be, 
according to this author, a little knowledge of 
grammar, history, astronomy, geography, weights 
and measures, the seven wonders of the world, 
burning mountains, and dying words of great men. 
But its delightful text must not detain us here. A 
series of " cuts " of national costumes with which 
it is embellished deserves to be described in detail. 
An American Man and Woman in their proper 
habits, reproduced on page 6, will give a better 
idea of their style than any words. The blocks 
evidently date many years earlier than the 
thirteenth edition here referred to, which is about 





Tilt F)inAtii->'(> «*mi CcuuoJii[Sk l aiAw. fcoUvt 



niti, ■ 



) 6 



ILLUSTRATION FROM "THE LITTLE PRINCESS. BY 
J. C. HORSLEY, R.A. (JOSEPH CUNDALL. 1843) 



ILLUSTRATION FROM " CHILD S PLAY. BY E. V. B. 
(NOW PUBLISHED BY SAMPSON LOW) 

1790. Indeed, those of the Seven Wonders are 
distinctly interesting. 

Here and there we meet with one interesting 
as art. " An Ancestral History of King Arthur " 
(H. Roberts, Blue Boar, Holborn, 1782), shown 
in the Pearson collection at South Kensington, has 
an admirable frontispiece ; and one or two others 
would be worth reproduction did space permit. 

Although the dates overlap, the next division of 
the subject may be taken as ranging from the 
publication of " Goody Two Shoes — otherwise 
called Mrs. Margaret Two-shoes " — to the "Bewick 
Books." Of the latter the most interesting is un- 
questionably " A Pretty Book of Pictures for Little 
Masters and Misses, or Tommy Trip's History of 
Beasts and Birds," with a familiar description of 
each in verse and prose, to which is prefixed " A 
History of Little Tom Trip himself, of his dog 
Towler, and of Coryleg the great giant," written 
for John Newbery, ■ the philanthropic bookseller 
of St. Paul's Churchyard. " The fifteenth edition 
embellished with charming engravings upon wood, 
from the original blocks engraved by Thomas 
Bewick for T. Saint of Newcastle in 1779" — to 
quote the full title from the edition reprinted by 
Edwin Pearson in 1867. This edition contains 
a preface tracing the history of the blocks, which 
are said to be Bewick's first efforts to depict beasts 
and birds, undertaken at the request of the New 



Children's Books 



castle printer, to illustrate 
a new edition of " Tommy 
Trip." As at this time 
copyright was unknown, and 
Newcastle or Glasgow pirated 
a London success (as New 
York did but lately), we 
must not be surprised to find 
that the text is said to be a 
reprint of a "Newbery" pub- 
lication. But as Saint was 
called the Newbery of the 
North, possibly the Bewick 
edition was authorised. One 
or two of the rhymes which 
have been attributed to 
Oliver Goldsmith deserve 
quotation. Appended to a 
cut of The Bison we find the 
following delightful lines : 

" The Bison, tho' neither 
Engaging nor young, 
Like a flatt'rer can lick you 
To death with his tongue." 

The astounding legend of 
the bison's long tongue, with 
which he captures a man who 
has ventured too close, is 
dilated upon in the accom- 
panying prose. That Gold- 
smith used " teeth " when 
he meant " tusks " solely for 
the sake of rhyme is a 
depressing fact made clear 
by the next verse : 




ILLUSTRATION FROM 



" The elephant wiLh trunk and 
teeth 
Threatens his foe with instant 
death, 

And should these not his ends avail 
His crushing feet will seldom fail." 

Nor are the rhymes as they stand peculiarly happy ; 
certainly in the following example it requires an 
effort to make " throw " and " now " pair off 
harmoniously. 

" The fierce, fell tiger will, they say, 
Seize any man that's in the way, 
And o'er his back the victim throw, 
As you your satchel may do now." 

Yet one more deserves to be remembered if but 
for its decorative spelling : 

" The cuccoo comes to chear the spring, 
And early every morn does sing ; 
The nightingale, secure and snug, 
The evening charms witli Jug, jug, jug." 

But these doggerel rhymes are not quite representa- 

12 



"the HONEY stew" 
(JEREMIAH HOW. 



If' 1 ' ' if : i 

liY HARRISON WEIR 



1S46) 



tive of the book, as the well-known " Three children 
sliding on the ice upon a summer's day " appears 
herein. The "cuts" are distinctively notable, 
especially the Crocodile (which contradicts the 
letterpress, that says " it turns about with diffi- 
culty"), the Chameleon, the Bison, and the Tiger. 

Bewick's " Select Fables of -F^sop and others " 
(Newcastle: T. Saint, 1784) deserves fuller notice, 
but yEsop, though a not unpopular book for chil- 
dren, is hardly a children's book. With " The 
Looking Glass for the Mind " (1792) we have the 
adaptation of a popular French work, " L'Ami des 
Enfans" (1749), with cuts by Bewick, which, if not 
equal to his best, are more interesting from our 
point of view, as they are obviously designed for 
young people. The letterpress is full of " useful 
lessons for my youthful readers," with morals pro- 
vokingly insisted upon. 

" Goody Two Shoes " was also published by 
Newbery of St. Paul's Churchyard — the pioneer of 
children's literature. His business — which after- 



and their Illustrators 



\-i 



wards became Messrs. Griffith and 
Farran — has been the subject of 
several monographs and magazine 
articles by Mr. Charles Welsh, a 
former partner of that firm. The 
two monographs were privately 
printed for issue to members of the 
Sette of Odde Volumes. The first 
of these is entitled " On some 
Books for Children of the last cen- 
tury, with a few words on the 
philanthropic publisher of St. Paul's 
Churchyard. A paper read at a 
meeting of the Sette of Odde 
Volumes, Friday, January 8, 1886." 
Herein we find a very sympathetic 
account of John Newbery and 
gossip of the clever and dis- 
tinguished men who assisted him 
in the production of children's 
books, of which Charles Knight 
said, " There is nothing more re- 
markable in them than their origin- 
ality. There have been attempts 
to imitate its simplicity, its homeliness ; great 
authors have tried their hands at imitating its clever 
adaptation to the youthful intellect, but they have 
failed " — a verdict which, if true of authors when 
Charles Knight uttered it, is hardly true of the 
present time. After Goldsmith, Charles Lamb, to 
whom " Goody Two Shoes " is now attributed, was, 
perhaps, the most famous contributor to Newbery's 



{ — — £_ -^ 





BLUE BEARD. ILLUSTRATION FROM " COMIC NURSERY 
TALES." BY A. CROWQU1LL (g. ROUTLEDGE. 1S45) 



ROBINSON CRUSOE." ILLUSTRATION FROM " COMIC NURSERY 
TALES." BY A. CROWO.UILL (g. ROUTLEDGE. 1S45) 



publications ; his " Beauty and the Beast " and 
"Prince Dorus " have been republished in fac- 
simile lately by Messrs. Field and Tuer. From 
the London Chronicle, December 1 9 to January 1 , 
1765, Mr. Welsh reprinted the following advertise- 
ment : 

" The Philosophers, Politicians, Necromancers, 
and the learned in every faculty are desired to 
observe that on January 1, being New Year's Day 
(oh that we may all lead new lives !), Mr. Newbery 
intends to publish the following important volumes, 
bound and gilt, and hereby invites all his little 
friends who are good to call for them at the Bible 
and Sun in St. Paul's Churchyard, but those who 
are naughty to have none." The paper read by 
Mr. Welsh scarcely fulfils the whole promise of its 
title, for in place of giving anecdotes of Newbery 
he refers his listeners to his own volume, " A Book- 
seller of the Last Century," for fuller details ; 
but what he said in praise of the excellent 
printing and binding of Newbery's books is well 
merited. They are, nearly all, comely productions, 
some with really artistic illustrations, and all 
marked with care and intelligence which had not 
hitherto been bestowed on publications intended 
for juveniles. It is true that most are distinguished 
for " calculating morality " as the Athenceum called 
it, in re-estimating their merits nearly a century 
later. It was a period when the advantages of 
dull moralising were over-prized, when people pro- 
fessed to believe that you could admonish children 
to a state of perfection which, in their didactic 
addresses to the small folk, they professed to obey 
themselves. It was, not to put too fine a point 
on it, an age of solemn hypocrisy, not perhaps so 
insincere in intention as in phrase ; but, all the 
same, it repels the more tolerant mood of to-day. 

13 



Children's Books 



Whether or not it be wise to confess to 
the same frailties and let children know 
the weaknesses of their elders, it is cer- 
tainly more honest ; and the danger is 
now rather lest the undue humility of 
experience should lead children to be- 
lieve that they are better than their 
fathers. Probably the honest sympathy 
now shown to childish ideals is not 
likely to be misinterpreted, for children 
are often shrewd judges, and can detect 
the false from the true, in morals if not 
in art. 

By 1800 literature for children had be- 
come an established fact. Large numbers 
of publications were ostentatiously ad- 
dressed to their amusement ; but nearly 
all hid a bitter if wholesome powder in 
a very small portion of jam. Books of 
educational purport, like " A Father's 
Legacy to his Daughter," with reprints of 
classics that are heavily weighted with 
morals — Dr. Johnson's " Rasselas " and 
"Jssop's Fables," for instance — are in 
the majority. "Robinson Crusoe" is 
indeed among them, and Bunyan's " Pil- 
grim's Progress," both, be it noted, 
hooks annexed by the young, not de- 
signed for them. 1LLl 

The titles of a few odd books which 
possess more than usually interesting 
features may be jotted down. Of 
these, " Little Thumb and the Ogre " (R. 
Dutton, 1788), with illustrations by William 
Blake, is easily first in interest, if not in other 
respects. Others include "The Cries of Lon- 
don" (1775), "Sindbad the Sailor" (Newbery, 
1 798), "Valentine and Orson" (Mary Rhynd, 





ILLUSTRATION FROM "COMIC NURbERY TALES' 

(G. routledge. 1S46) 

14 



STRAT10N FROM " ROBINSON CRUSOE.'' BY CHARLES KEENE 
(JAMES BURNS. 1S47) 

Clerkenwell, 1S04), "Fun at the Fair" (with 
spirited cuts printed in red), and Watts's " Divine 
and Moral Songs," and "An Abridged New Testa- 
ment," with still more effective designs also in red 
(Lumsden, Glasgow), "Gulliver's Travels " (greatly 
abridged, 1815), " Mother Gum" (1805), "Anec- 
dotes of a Little Family" (1795), " Mirth without 
Mischief," " King Pippin," " The Daisy" (caution- 
ary stories in verse), and the "Cowslip," its com- 
panion (with delightfully prim little rhymes that 
have been reprinted lately). The thirty illustrations 
in each are by Samuel Williams, an artist who yet 
awaits his due appreciation. A large number of 
classics of their kind, " The Adventures of Philip 
Quarll," " Gulliver's Travels," Blake's " Songs of 
Innocence," Charles Lamb's " Stories from Shakes- 
peare," Mrs. Sherwood's " Henry and his Bearer," 
and a host of other religious stories, cannot even 
be enumerated. But even were it possible to 
compile a full list of children's books, it would be 
of little service, for the popular books are in no 
danger of being forgotten, and the unpopular, as 
a rule, have vanished out of existence, and except 
by pure accident could not be found for love or 
money. 

With the publications of Newbery and Harris, 
early in the nineteenth century, we encounter 
examples more nearly typical of the child's book 
as we regard it to-day. Among them Harris's 



and their Illustrators 



" Cabinet " is noticeable. The first four volumes, 
" The Butterfly's Ball," " The Peacock at Home," 
" The Lion's Masquerade," and " The Elephant's 
Ball," were reprinted a few years ago, with the 
original illustrations by Mulready carefully repro- 
duced. A coloured series of sixty-two books, 
priced at one shilling and sixpence each (Harris), 
was extremely popular. 

With the " Paths of Learning strewed with 
Flowers, or English Grammar Illustrated " (rS2o), 
we encounter a work not without elegance. Its 
designs, as we see by the examples reproduced on 
page 9, are the obvious prototype of Miss Green- 
away, the model that inspired her to those dainty 
trifles which conquered even so stern a critic of 
modern illustration as Mr. Ruskin. On its cover 
--a forbidding wrapper devoid of ornament — and 
repeated within a wreath of roses inside, this pre- 
amble occurs : " The purpose of this little book is 
to obviate the reluctance children evince to the 
irksome and insipid task of learning the names and 
meanings of the component parts of grammar. 
Our intention is to entwine roses with instruction, 




TITLE-PAGE FROM "THE SCOURING OF THE WHITE HORSE. 
BY RICHARD DOYLE (MACMILLAN AND CO. 1S58) 



and however humble our endeavour may appear, 
let it be recollected that the efforts of a Mouse set 
the Lion free from his toils." This oddly phrased 
explanation is typical of the affected geniality of 
the governess. Indeed, it might have been penned 
by an assistant to Miss Pinkerton, " the Semiramis 
of Hammersmith " ; if not by that friend of Dr. 
Johnson, the correspondent of Mrs. Chapone her- 
self, in a moment of gracious effort to bring her 
intellect down to the level of her pupils. 

To us, this hollow gaiety sounds almost cruel. 
In those days children were always regarded as if, to 
quote Mark Twain, " every one being born with an 
equal amount of original sin, the pressure on the 
square inch must needs be greater in a baby." 
Poor little original sinners, how very scurvily the 
world of books and picture-makers treated you 
less than a century ago ! Life for you then was a 
perpetual reformatory, a place beset with penalties, 
and echoing with reproofs. Even the literature 
planned to amuse your leisure was stuck full of 
maxims and morals ; the most piquant story was 
but a prelude to an awful warning ; pictures of 
animals, places, and rivers failed 
to conceal undisguised lessons. 
The one impression that is left 
by a study of these books is the 
lack of confidence in their own 
dignity which papas and mammas 
betrayed in the early Victorian 
era. This seems past all doubt 
when you realise that the common 
effort of all these pictures and 
prose is to glorify the impeccable 
parent, and teach his or her off- 
spring to grovel silently before 
the stern law-givers who ruled the 
home. 

Of course it was not really so, 
literature had but lately come to 
a great middle class who had not 
learned to be easy ; and as worthy 
folk who talked colloquially wrote 
in stilted parody of Dr. Johnson's 
stately periods, so the uncouth 
address in print to the populace 
of the nursery was doubtless for- 
gotten in daily intercourse. But 
the conventions were preserved, 
and honest fun or full-bodied 
romance that loves to depict 
gnomes and hob-goblins, giants 
and dwarfs in a world of adven- 
ture and mystery, was unpopular. 
Children's books were illustrated 
entirely by the wonders of the 
creation, or the still greater 
wonders of so-called polite 
society. Never in them, except 
introduced purposely as an " aw- 
ful example," do you meet an 
'5 



Children s Books 



untidy, careless, normal child. Even the beggars 
are prim, and the beasts and birds distinctly 
genteel in their habits. Fairyland was shut to the 
little ones, who were turned out of their own 
domain. It seems quite likely that this continued 
until the German mdrchen (the literary products of 
Germany were much in favour at this period) 
reopened the wonderland of the other world about 
the time that Charles Dickens helped to throw 
the door still wider. Discovering that the child 
possessed the right to be amused, the imagination 
of poets and artists addressed itself at last to the 
most appreciative of all audiences, a world of new- 
comers, with insatiable appetites for wonders real 
and imaginary. 

But for many years before the Victorian period 
folklore was left to the peasants, or at least kept 
out of reach of children of the higher classes. No 
doubt old nurses prattled it to their charges, perhaps 
weak-minded mothers occasionally repeated the 
ancient legends, but the printing-press set its 





ILLUSTRATION (REDUCED) FROM "MISUNDERSTOOD" BY GEORGE 

DU MAURIER (RICHARD BENTLEY AND SON. 1S74) 

16 



ILLUSTRATION FROM "THE TRINCESS AND 

THE GOBLIN." (STRAHAN. 187I. NOW 

PUBLISHED BY BLACKIE AND SON') 



face against fancy, and offered facts 
in its stead. In the list of sixty- 
two books before mentioned, if we 
except a few nursery jingles such 
as " Mother Hubbard " and " Cock 
Robin," we find but two real fairy 
stories, " Cinderella," " Puss-in- 
Boots," and three old-world narra- 
tives of adventure, " Whittington 
and His Cat," " The Seven Cham- 
pions of Christendom," and 
" Valentine and Orson." The rest 
are " Peter Piper's Practical Prin- 
ciples of Plain and Perfect Pro- 
nunciation," " The Monthly Moni- 
tor," " Tommy Trip's Museum of 
Beasts," " The Perambulations of a 
Mouse," and so on, with a few 
things like "The House that Jack 
Built," and "A, Apple Pie," that 
are but daily facts put into story 
shape. Now it is clear that the 
artists inspired by fifty of these 
had no chance of displaying their 
imagination, and every opportunity 
of pointing a moral ; and it is 
painful to be obliged to own that 
they succeeded beyond belief in 
their efforts to be dull. Of like 
sort are " A Visit to the Bazaar " 
(Harris, 1814), and "The Dandies' 
Ball" (1820). 

Nor must we forget a work very 
popular at this period, " Keeper 



and their Illustrators 



in Search of His Master," although its illustrations 
are not its chief point. 

According to a very interesting preface Mr. 
Andrew Tuer contributed to " The Leadenhall 
Series of Reprints of Forgotten Books for Children 
in 1813," "Dame Wiggins of Lee" was first 
issued by A. K. Newman and Co. of the Minerva 
Press. This book is perhaps better known than 
any of its date owing to Mr. Ruskin's reprint with 
additional verses by himself, and new designs by 
Miss Kate Greenaway supplementing the original 
cuts, which were re-engraved in facsimile by Mr. 
Hooper. Mr. Tuer attributes the design of these 
latter to R. Stennet (or Sinnet ?), who illustrated 
also " Deborah Dent and her Donkey " and 
" Madame Figs' Gala." Newman issued many of 
these books, in conjunction with Messrs. Dean 
and Mundy, the direct ancestors of the firm of 
Dean and Son, still flourishing, and still engaged in 
providing cheap and attractive books for children. 
" The Gaping Wide-mouthed Waddling Frog " is 
another book of about this period, which Mr. Tuer 





ILLUSTRATION FROM " GUTTA PERCHA WILLIE." 

BY ARTHUR HUGHES 

(STRAHAN. 1870. NOW PUBLISHED BY ELACKIE AND SON) 



ILLUSTRATION FROM "AT THE BACK OF THE 

NORTH WIND." BY ARTHUR HUGHES 

(STRAHAN. 1869. NOW PUBLISHED BY 

BLACKIE AND SON) 

included in his reprints. Among the 
many illustrated volumes which bear 
the imprint of A. K. Newman, and 
Dean and Mundy, are " A, Apple 
Pie," " Aldiborontiphoskyphorniosti- 
kos," "The House that Jack Built," 
" The Parent's Offering for a Good 
Child " (a very pompous and irritat- 
ing series of dialogues), and others 
that are even more directly educational. 
In all these the engravings are in 
fairly correct outline, coloured with four 
to six washes of showy crimson lake, 
ultramarine, pale green, pale sepia, and 
gamboge. 

Even the dreary text need not have 
made the illustrators quite so dull, as we 
know that Randolph Caldecott would 
have made an illustrated " Bradshaw " 
amusing ; but most of his earlier pre- 
decessors show no less power in mak- 
ing anything they touched " un-funny." 
Nor as art do their pictures interest 
you any more than as anecdotes. 

Of course the cost of coloured en- 
gravings prohibited their lavish use. 
All were tinted by hand, sometimes 
with the help of stencil plates, but 
more often by brush. The print 
colourers, we are told, lived chiefly in 
the Pentonville district, or in some of 
the poorer streets near Leicester 
Square. A few survivors are still to 
be found ; but the introduction first 

'7 



CJiildreris Books 




ILLUSTRATION' FROM "AT THE BACK OF THE 

NORTH WIND." BY ARTHUR HUGHES 

(STRAHAN. 1S69. NOW PUBLISHED BY 

BLACKIE AND SON) 

of lithography, and later of photographic processes, 
has killed the industry, and even the most 
fanatical apostle of the old crafts cannot wish 
the "hand-painter" back again. The outlines 
were either cut on wood, as in the early days 
of printing until the present, or else engraved 
on metal. In each case all colour was painted 
afterwards, and in scarce a single instance (not 
even in the Rowlandson caricatures or patriotic 
pieces) is there any attempt to obtain an harmonious 
scheme such as is often found in the tinted mezzo- 
tints of the same period. 

Of works primarily intended for little people, 
an " Hieroglyphical Bible " for the amusement 
and instruction of the younger generation (1814) 
may be noted. This was a mixture of picture- 
puns and broken words, after the fashion of the 
dreary puzzles still published in snippet weeklies. 
It is a melancholy attempt to turn Bible texts to 
picture puzzles, a book permitted by the unco' 
guid to children on wet Sunday afternoons, as 
some younger members of large families, whose 
elder brothers' books yet lingered forty or even 
fifty years after publication, are able to endorse 
with vivid and depressed remembrance. Foxe's 
" Book of Martyrs " and Bunyan's " Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress " are of the same type, and calculated to fill a 
nervous child with grim terrors, not lightened by 
Watts's " Divine and Moral Songs," that gloated 
on the dreadful hell to which sinful children were 
doomed, "with devils in darkness, fire and chains." 
But this painful side of the subject is not to be 
discussed here. Luckily the artists — except in 
18 



the " grown-up " books referred to — disdained to 
enforce the terrors of Dr. Watts, and pictured less 
horrible themes. 

With Cruikshank we encounter almost the first 
glimpse of the modern ideal. His " Grimm's Fairy 
Tales " are delightful in themselves, and marvellous 
in comparison with all before, and no little after. 

These famous illustrations to the first selection 
of Grimm's "German Popular Stories" appeared 
in 1824, followed by a second series in 1826. 
Coming across this work after many days spent 
in hunting up children's books of the period, 
the designs flashed upon one as masterpieces, and 
for the first time seemed to justify the great popu- 
larity of Cruikshank. For their vigour and brilliant 
invention, their diablerie and true local colour, are 
amazing when contrasted with what had been pre- 
viously. Wearied of the excessive eulogy bestowed 
upon Cruikshank's illustrations to Dickens, and 
unable to accept the artist as an illustrator of real 
characters in fiction, when he studies his elfish 
and other-worldly personages, the most grudging 
critic must needs yield a full tribute of praise. 
The volumes (published by Charles Tilt, of 82 Fleet 
Street) are extremely rare ; for many years past 
the sale-room has recorded fancy prices for all 
Cruikshank's illustrations, so that a lover of 
modern art has been jealous to note the amount 




ILLUSTRATION FROM " THF. LITTLE WONDER HORN. 

BY J. MAHONEY 

(II. S. KING AND CO. 1S72. GRIFFITH AND FARRAN iSS?) 



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and their Illustrators 




ILLUSTRATION FROM "SPEAKING LIKENESSES. BY ARTHUR HUGHES 

(MACMILLAN AND CO. 1874) 



paid for many extremely poor pictures by this 
artist, when even original drawings for the master- 
pieces by later illustrators went for a song. In 
Mr. Temple Scott's indispensable "Book Sales of 
1896 " we find the two volumes (1823-6) fetched 

;£l2 I2S. 

These must not be confounded with Cruik- 
shank's "Fairy Library" (1847-64), a series of 
small books in paper wrappers, now exceedingly 
rare, which are more distinctly prepared for juvenile 
readers. The illustrations to these do not rise above 
the level of their day, as did the earlier ones. But 
this is owing largely to the fact that the standard had 
risen far above its old average in the thirty years 
that had elapsed. Amid the mass of volumes 
illustrated by Cruikshank comparatively few are 
for juveniles ; some of these are : " Grimm's 
Gammer Grethel " ; "Peter Schlemihl " (1824); 
"Christmas Recreation " (1825) ; "Hans of Ice- 
land "(1825);" German Popular Stories " (1823); 



"Robinson Crusoe" (1831); 
"The Brownies" (1870); "Lob- 
lie-by- the- Fire" (1874); "Tom 
Thumb" (1830); and "John 
Gilpin" (1828). 

The works of Richard Doyle 
(1824-1883) enjoy in a lesser 
degree the scut of inflated popu- 
larity which has gathered around 
those of Cruikshank. With much 
spirit and pleasant invention, 
Doyle lacked academic skill, and 
often betrays considerable weak- 
ness, not merely in composition, 
but in invention. Yet the qualities 
which won him reputation are 
by no means despicable. He evi- 
dently felt the charm of fairyland, 
and peopled it with droll little 
folk who are neither too human 
nor too unreal to be attractive. 
He joined the staff of Punch when 
but nineteen, and soon, by his 
political cartoons, and his famous 
" Manners and Customs of y e 
English drawn from y e Quick," 
became an established favourite. 
His design for the cover of 
Punch is one of his happiest 
inventions. So highly has he been 
esteemed that the National Gal- 
lery possesses one of his pictures, 
The Triumphant Entry; a Fairy 
Pageant. Children's books with 
his illustrations are numerous ; 
perhaps the most important are 
"The Enchanted Crow " (1871), 
"Feast of Dwarfs" (187 1), "For- 
tune's Favourite" (18 71), "The 
Fairy Ring " (1845), " I n Fairy- 
land " (1870), " Merry Pictures " 
(1857), "Princess Nobody" (1884), "Mark 
Lemon's Fairy Tales" (1868), "A Juvenile 
Calendar" (1855), "Fairy Tales from all Na- 
tions" (1849), "Snow White and Rosy Red" 
(1871), Ruskin's "The King of the Golden 
River " (1884), Hughes's " Scouring of the White 
Horse" (1859), " Jack the Giant Killer " (1888), 
" Home for the Holidays" (1887), "The Whyte 
Fairy Book" (1893). The three last are, of 
course, posthumous publications. 

Still confining ourselves to the pre- Victorian 
period, although the works in question were popular 
several decades later, we find " Sandford and 
Merton" (first published in 1783, and constantly 
reprinted), " The Swiss Family Robinson," the 
beginning of " Peter Parley's Annals," and a vast 
number of other books with the same pseudonym 
appended, and a host of didactic works, a large 
number of which contained pictures of animals and 
other natural objects, more or less well drawn. But 

J 9 



Children s Books 




Wj?*~ 



ILLUSTRATION' FROM " UNDINE." BY SIR JOHN TENNIEL 
(JAMES BURNS. 1S45) 



the pictures in these are not of any great conse- 
quence, merely reflecting the average taste of the 
day, and very seldom designed from a child's point 
of view. 

This very inadequate sketch of the books before 
1837 is not curtailed for want of material, but 



because, despite the enormous amount, very few 
show attempts to please the child ; to warn, to 
exhort, or to educate are their chief aims. Occa- 
sionally a Bewick or an artist of real power is met 
with, but the bulk is not only dull, but of small artistic 
value. That the artist's name is rarely given must 
not be taken as a sign that only inept draughtsmen 
were employed, for in works of real importance 
up to and even beyond this date we often find his 
share ignored. After a time the engraver claims to 
be considered, and by degrees the designer is also 
recognised ; yet for the most part illustration was 
looked upon merely as " jam " to conceal the pill. 
The old Puritan conception of art as vanity had 
something to do with this, no doubt ; for adults 
often demand that their children shall obey a 
sterner rule of life than that which they accept 
themselves. 

Before passing on, it is as well to summarise 
this preamble and to discover how far children's 
books had improved when her Majesty came to 
the throne. The old woodcut, rough and ill-drawn, 
had been succeeded by the masterpieces of 
Bewick, and the respectable if dull achievements 
of his followers. In the better class of books 
were excellent designs by artists of some repute 
fairly well engraved. Colouring by hand, in a 
primitive fashion, was applied to these prints 
and to impressions from copperplates. A cer- 
tain prettiness was the highest aim of most of 
the latter, and very few were designed only to 
amuse a child. It seems as if all concerned were 
bent on unbending themselves, careful to offer 
grains of truth to young minds with an occasional 




ILLUSTRATION FROM " ELLIOTT'S NURSERY RHYMES" 

(novello, 1S70) 



BY W. .1. WIEGAND 



and their Illustrators 




illustration from " elliott's nursery rhymes" 

(novello. 1870) 



BY II. STACY MARKS, R.A. 



terrible falsity of their attitude ; indeed, its satire 
and profound analysis make it superfluous to re- 
open the subject. As one might expect, the litera- 
ture, " genteel " and dull, naturally desired pictures 
in the same key. The art of even the better class 
of children's books was satisfied if it succeeded in 
being " genteel," or, as Miss Limpenny would say, 
"cumeelfo." Its ideal reached no higher, and 
sometimes stopped very far below that modest 
standard. This is the best (with the few excep- 
tions already noted) one 
can say of pre-Victorian 
illustration for children. 
If there is one opinion 
deeply rooted in the 
minds of the compara- 
tively few Britons who 
care for art, it is a dis- 
trust of "The Cole Gang 
of South Kensington ; " 
and yet if there be one 
fact which confronts any 
student of the present 
revival of the applied 
arts, it is that sooner or 
later you come to its 
first experiments inspired 
or actually undertaken 
by Sir Henry Cole. 
Under the pseudonym 
of " Felix Summerley " 
we find that the origina- 
tor of a hundred revivals 
of the applied arts, pro- 
jected and issued a 
series of children's books 
which even to-day are 
decidedly worth praise. 
It is the fashion to trace 
everything to Mr. Wil- 
liam Morris, but in illus- 
trations for children as in 



a hundred others " Felix Summerley " was setting 
the ball rolling when Morris and the members of 
the famous firm were schoolboys. 

To quote from his own words : " During this 
period {i.e., about 1844), my young children be- 
coming numerous, their wants induced me to 
publish a rather long series of books, which con- 
stituted ' Summerley's Home Treasury,' and I 
had the great pleasure of obtaining the welcome 
assistance of some of the first artists of the time in 




ILLUSTRATION FROM 



: THE WATER BABIES 

(MACMILLAN AND CO. 1S63) 



BY SIR R. NOEL PATON 



Children s Books 



illustrating them — Mulready, R.A., Cope, R.A., Horsley, R.A., 
Redgrave, R.A., Webster, R.A., Linnell and his three sons, John, 
James, and William, H. J. Townsend, and others. . . . The 
preparation of these books gave me practical knowledge in the 
technicalities of the arts of type-printing, lithography, copper and 
steel-plate engraving and printing, and bookbinding in all its 
varieties in metal, wood, leather, &c." 

Copies of the books in question appear to be very rare. It 
is doubtful if the omnivorous British Museum has swallowed a 
complete set ; certainly at the Art Library of South Kensington 
Museum, where, if anywhere, we might expect to find Sir Henry 
Cole completely represented, many gaps occur. 

How far Mr. Joseph Cundall, the publisher, should be awarded 
a share of the credit for the enterprise is not apparent, but his 
publications and writings, together with the books issued later 
by Cundall and Addey, are all marked with the new spirit, 
which so far as one can discover was working in many minds 
at this time, and manifested itself most conspicuously through 
the Pre-Raphaelites and their allies. This all took place, it 
must be remembered, long before 1851. We forget often that 
if that exhibition has any important place in the art history of 
Great Britain, it does but prove that much preliminary work had 
been already accomplished. You cannot exhibit what does not 
exist ; you cannot even call into being " exhibition specimens " 
at a few months notice, if something of the same sort, worked for 
ordinary commerce, has not already been in progress for years 
previously. 

Almost every book referred to has been examined anew 




-^AVVW^R .L* 




ILLUSTRATION FROM "THE ROYAL UMBRELLA." BY I.INI.EY 
SAMBOURNE (GRIFFITH ANT) FARRAN. l88o) 

22 



ILLUSTRATION FROM ON A PIN- 

CUSHION." BY WILLIAM DE MOR- 
GAN (SEELEY, JACKSON AND 
HALI.IDAY. 1877) 



for the purposes of this article. As a 
whole they might fail to impress a critic 
not peculiarly interested in the matter. 
But if he tries to project himself to the 
period that produced them, and realises 
fully the enormous importance of first 
efforts, he will not estimate grudgingly 
their intrinsic value, but be inclined to 
credit them with the good things they 
never dreamed of, as well as those they 
tried to realise and often failed to 
achieve. Here, without any prejudice 
for or against the South Kensington 
movement, it is but common justice to 
record Sir Henry Cole's share in the 
improvement of children's books ; 
and later on his efforts on behalf of 
process engraving must also not be 
forgotten. 

To return to the books in question, 
some extracts from the original pros- 
pectus, which speaks of them as " pur- 
posed to cultivate the Affections, Fancy, 



and their Illustrators 



Imagination, and Taste of Children," are worth 
quotation : 

" The character of most children's books pub- 
lished during the last quarter of a century, is 
fairly typified in the name of Peter Parley, which 
the writers of some hundreds of them have assumed. 
The books themselves have been addressed after 
a narrow fashion, almost entirely to the cultivation 
of the understanding of children. The many tales 
sung or said from time to time immemorial, which 
appealed to the other, and certainly not less im- 
portant elements of a little child's mind, its fancy, 
imagination, sympathies, affections, are almost all 
gone out of memory, and are scarcely to be 
obtained. ' Little Red Riding Hood,' and other 
fairy tales hallowed to children's use, are now 
turned into ribaldry as satires for men ; as for the 
creation of a new fairy tale or touching ballad, 
such a thing is unheard of. That the influence of 
all this is hurtful to children, the conductor of this 
series firmly believes. He has practical experience 




ILLUSTRATION FROM "THE NECKLACE OE PRINCESS FIORIMONDE. 
BY WALTER CRANE (iMACMILLAN AND CO. l88o) 



of it every day in his own family, and he doubts 
not that there are many others who entertain the 
same opinions as himself. He purposes at least 
to give some evidence of his belief, and to produce 
a series of works, the character of which may be 
briefly described as anti-Peter Parleyism. 

" Some will be new works, some new combina- 
tions of old materials, and some reprints carefully 
cleared of impurities, without deterioration to the 
points of the story. All will be illustrated, but 
not after the usual fashion of children's books, in 
which it seems to be assumed that the lowest kind 
of art is good enough to give first impressions to 
a child. In the present series, though the state- 
ment may perhaps excite a smile, the illustrations 
will be selected from the works of Raffaelle, Titian, 
Hans Holbein, and other old masters. Some of 
the best modern artists have kindly promised 
their aid in creating a taste for beauty in little 
children." Did space permit, a selection from the 
reviews of the chief literary papers that welcomed 
the new venture would be in- 
structive. There we should find 
that even the most cautious 
critic, always " hedging " and 
playing for safety, felt com- 
pelled to accord a certain 
amount of praise to the new 
enterprise. 

It is true that " Felix Sum- 
merley " created only one type 
of the modern book. Pos- 
sibly the "stories turned into 
satires " to which he alludes are 
the entirely amusing volumes 
by F. H. Bayley, the author of 
" A New Tale of a Tub." As 
it happened that these volumes 
were my delight as a small boy, 
possibly I am unduly fond of 
them ; but it seems to me that 
their humour — a la Ingoldsby, 
it is true — and their exuberantly 
comic drawings, reveal the first 
glimpses of lighter literature 
addressed specially to children, 
that long after found its master- 
pieces in the " Crane" and 
" Greenaway " and " Caldecott " 
Toy Books, in " Alice in Won- 
derland," and in a dozen other 
treasured volumes, which are 
now classics. The chief claim 
for the Home Treasury series 
to be considered as the advance 
guard of our present sumptuous 
volumes, rests not so much 
upon the quality of their designs 
or the brightness of their litera- 
ture. Their chief importance 
is that in each of them we find 
23 



Children s Books 



for the first time that the externals of a child's 
book are most carefully considered. Its type is 
■well chosen, the proportions of its page are 
evidently studied, its binding, even its end-papers, 
show that some one person was doing his best 
to attain perfection. It is this conscious effort, 
whatever it actually realised, which distinguishes 
the result from all before. 

It is evident that the series — the Home 
Treasury — took itself seriously. Its purpose was 
Art with a capital A — a discovery, be it noted, of 
this period. Sir Henry Cole, in a footnote to the 
very page whence the quotation above was ex- 




*Ehl-THEqiRL WENT- BACK a^A" 

ruTHE'WUL'NOT KNOWi Nl, -,-H/vr 
TO- DO / AN DIN "THE ' DE_-jT»AIiV Of' Ml 
HEAfcr'iHE'jUMPeo 'DOWN into 

•the " well" the ' same - way'lh i 
'Spindle ' mad • c;ome ."'' 



ILLUSTRATION 1-ROM 



24 



' HOUSEHOLD STORIES FROM GRIMM." 

BY WALTERCRANE (MACMILLAN AND CO, 



traded, discusses the first use of " Art " as an adjec- 
tive denoting the Fine Arts. 

Here it is more than ever difficult to keep to 
the thread of this discourse. All that South 
Kensington did and failed to do, the aesthetic 
movement of the eighties, the new gospel of artistic 
salvation by Liberty fabrics and De Morgan tiles, 
the erratic changes of fashion in taste, the collapse 
of Gothic architecture, the triumph of Queen 
Anne, and the Arts and Crafts movement of the 
nineties — in short, all the story of Art in the last 
fifty years, from the new Law Courts to the Tate 
Gallery, from Felix Summerley to a Hollyer photo- 
graph, from the introduction 
of glyptography to the pic- 
tures in the Daily Chronicle, 
demand notice. But the door 
must be shut on the turbulent 
throng, and only children's 
books allowed to pass through. 
The publications by " Felix 
Summerley," according to the 
list in " Fifty Years of Public 
Work," by Sir Henry Cole, 
K.C.B. (Bell, 1884), include : 
" Holbein's Bible Events," 
eight pictures, coloured by 
Mr. LinnelFs sons, 4s. 6d. ; 
" Raffaelle's Bible Events," 
six pictures from the Loggia, 
drawn on stone by Mr. Lin- 
nell's children and coloured 
by them, 5s. 6c.. ; " Albert 
Uiirer's Bible Events," six 
pictures from Diirer's " Small 
Passion," coloured by the 
brothers Linnell ; " Tradi- 
tional Nursery Songs," con- 
taining eight pictures ; " The 
Beggars coming to Town," by 
C. W. Cope, R.A. ; " By, O 
my Baby ! " by R. Redgrave, 
R.A. ; " Mother Hubbard," 
by T. Webster, R.A. ; " 1, 
2, 3. 4. S>" " Sleepy Head," 
" Up in a Basket," " Cat 
asleep by the Fire," by John 
Linnell, 4s. 6d., coloured ; 
"The Ballad of Sir Horn- 
book," by Thos. Love Pea- 
cock, with eight pictures by 
H. Corbould, coloured, 4s. 6./. 
(A book with the same title, 
also described as a " gramma- 
tico-allegorical ballad," was 
published by N. Haites in 
1 8 1 8.) " Chevy Chase," with 
music and four pictures by 
Frederick Tayler, President 
of the Water-Colour Society, 
1SS2) coloured, 4s. 6d. ; " Puck's 




and their Illustrators 



Reports to Oberon " ; 
Four new Faery Tales : 
" The Sisters," " Golden 
Locks," " Grumble and 
Cherry," " Arts and 
Arms," by C. A. Cole, 
with six pictures by J. 
H. Townsend, R. Red- 
grave, R.A., J. C. Hors- 
ley, R.A., C. W. Cope, 
R.A„ and F. Tayler; 
" Little Red Riding 
Hood," with four pic- 
tures by Thos. Webster, 
coloured, 3s. 6d. ; 
"Beauty and the Beast," 
with four pictures by 
J. C. Horsley, R.A., 
coloured, 3s. 6d.; " Jack 
and the Bean Stalk," 
with four pictures by C. 
W.Cope, R.A., coloured, 
3s. 6d. ; " Cinderella," 
with four pictures by E. 
H. Wehnert, coloured, 
3s. 6d. ; "Jack the Giant 
Killer," with four pic- 
tures by C. W. Cope, 
coloured, 3s. 6d. ; " The 
Home Treasury Primer," 
printed in colours, with 
drawing on zinc, by W. 
Mulready, R.A. ; "Al- 
phabets of Quadru- 
peds," selected from the 
works of Paul Potter, 
Karl du Jardin, Teniers, 
Stoop, Rembrandt, &c, 
and drawn from nature ; 
" The Pleasant History 
of Reynard the Fox," 
with forty of the fifty- 
seven etchings made by 
Everdingen in 1752, 
coloured, 31.*. 6d. ; "A 
Century of Fables," with 
pictures by the old 
masters. 

To this list should be added — if it is not by "Felix 
Summerley," it is evidently conceived by the same 
spirit and published also by Cundall — " Gammer 
Gurton's Garland," by Ambrose Merton, with 
illustrations by T. Webster and others. This 
was also issued as a series of sixpenny books, of 
which Mr. Elkin Mathews owns a nearly complete 
set, in their original covers of gold and coloured 
paper. 

It would be very easy to over-estimate the in- 
trinsic merit of these books, but when you con- 
sider them as pioneers it would be hard to over- 
rate the importance of the new departure. To 








ILLUSTRATION FROM 



' A WONDER BOOK FOR GIRLS AND BOYS. 

BY WALTER CRANE (OSGOOD, MCILVAINE AND CO. 1S92) 

enlist the talent of the most popular artists of 
the period, and produce volumes printed in the 
best style of the Chiswick Press, with bind- 
ings and end-papers specially designed, and the 
whole " get up " of the book carefully considered, 
was certainly a bold innovation in the early forties. 
That it failed to be a profitable venture one may 
deduce from the fact that the " Felix Summerley " 
series did not run to many volumes, and that the 
firm who published them, after several changes, 
seems to have expired, or more possibly was in- 
corporated with some other venture. The books 
themselves are forgotten by most booksellers to- 



Children s Books 



day, as I have discovered from many fruitless 
demands for copies. 

The little square pamphlets by F. H. Bayley, 
to which allusion has already been made, include 
" Blue Beard," " Robinson Crusoe," and " Red 
Riding Hood," all published about 1845-6. 




ILLUSTRATION FROM 
"THE QUEEN OF THE PIRATE ISLE." 
1SY KATE GREENAWAY (EDMUND EVANS. 1SS7) 

Whether " The Sleeping Beauty," then announced 
as in preparation, was published, I do not know. 
Their rhyming chronicle in the style of the " In- 
goldsby Legends " is neatly turned, and the topical 
allusions, although out of date now, are not suffi- 
ciently frequent to make it unintelligible. The 
pictures (possibly by Alfred Crowquill) are con- 
ceived in a spirit of burlesque, and are full of in- 
genious conceits and no little grim vigour. The 
design of Robinson Crusoe roosting in a tree — 



And so he climbs up a very tall tree, 

And fixes himself to his comfort and glee, 

Hung up from the end of a branch by his breech, 

Quite out of all mischievous quadrupeds' reach. 

A position not perfectly easy 't is true, 

But yet at the same time consoling and new — 

reproduced on p. 13, shows the wilder humour of the 
illustrations. Another of Blue Beard, and one ot 
the wolf suffering from undigested grandmother, 
are also given. They need no comment, except 
to note that in the originals, printed on a coloured 
tint with the high lights left white, the ferocity of 
Blue Beard is greatly heightened. The wolf, "as 
he lay there brimful of grandmother and guilt," 
is one of the best of the smaller pictures in the text. 

Other noteworthy books which appeared about 
this date are Mrs. Felix Summerley's " Mother's 
Primer," illustrated by W. M[ulready?], Longmans, 
1843; "Little Princess," by Mrs. John Slater, 
1843, with six charming lithographs by J. C. 
Horsley, R.A. (one of which is reproduced on 
p. n); the "Honey Stew," of the Countess 
Bertha Jeremiah How, 1846, with coloured plates 
by Harrison Weir ; " Early Days of English 
Princes," with capital illustrations by John Franklin; 
and a series of Pleasant Books for Young Children, 
6d. plain and is. coloured, published by Cundall 
and Addey. 

In 1846 appeared a translation of De La Motte 
Fouque"s romances, " Undine " being illustrated 
by John Tenniel, jun., and the following volumes 
by J. Franklin, H. C. Selous, and other artists. 
The Tenniel designs, as the frontispiece reproduced 
on p. 20 shows clearly, are interesting both in 
themselves and as the earliest published work of 
the famous Punch cartoonist. The strong German 
influence they show is also apparent in nearly all 
the decorations. " The Juvenile Verse and 







1 *G 



ILLUSTRATION FROM "LITTLE FOLKS' 
26 



BY KAIL GREENAWAY 



(CASSELL AND CO.) 



and their Illustrators 




ILLUSTRATION FROM "THE ITED 1'11'ER OK 11A.MEI.In" 

(EDMUND EVANS) 



BY KATE GREENAWAY 



Picture Book" (1848), also contains designs by 
Tenniel, and others by W. B. Scott and Sir 
John Gilbert. The ideal they established is 
maintained more or less closely for a long period. 
" Songs for Children " (W. S. Orr, 1850); " Young 
England's Little Library" (1851); Mrs. S. C. 
Hall's " Number One," with pictures by John 
Absolon (1854); "Stories about Dogs," with 
"plates by Thomas Landseer" (Bogue, c. 1850) ; 
"The Three Bears," illustrated by Absolon and 
Harrison Weir (Addey and Co., no date) ; " Nursery 
Poetry" (Bell and Daldy, 1859), may be noted as 
typical examples of this period. 

In " Granny's Story Box " (Piper, Stephenson, 
and Spence, about 1855), a most delicious collec- 
tion of fairy tales illustrated by J. Knight, we 
find the author in his preface protesting against 
the opinion of a supposititious old lady who 
" thought all fairy tales were abolished years ago 
by Peter Parley and the Penny Magazine." These 
fanciful stories deserve to be republished, for they 
are not old-fashioned, even if their pictures are. 



To what date certain delightfully printed little 
volumes, issued by Tabart and Co., 157 Bond 
Street, may be ascribed I know not — probably 
some years before the time we are considering, 
but they must not be overlooked. The title of 
one, " Mince Pies for Christmas," suggests that 
it is not very far before, for the legend of Christmas 
festivities had not long been revived for popular 
use. 

" The Little Lychetts," by the author of " John 
Halifax," illustrated by Henry Warren, President 
of the New Society of Painters in Water-Colours 
(now the R.I.) is remarkable for the extremely 
uncomely type of children it depicts ; yet that its 
charm is still vivid, despite its " severe " illustra- 
tions, you have but to lend it to a child to be 
convinced quickly. 

"Jack's Holiday," by Albert Smith (undated), 
suggests a new field of research which might lead 
us astray, as Smith's humour is more often 
addressed primarily to adults. Indeed, the 
effort to make this chronicle even representative, 

27 



CJiildreris Books 



much less exhaustive, breaks down in the fifties, 
when so much good yet not very exhilarating 
material is to be found in every publisher's list. 
John Leech in " The Silver Swan " of Mdme. de 
Chatelaine ; Charles Keene in " The Adventures 
of Dick Bolero " (Darton, no date), and " Robin- 
son Crusoe " (drawn upon for illustration here), 
and others of the Punch artists, should find their 
works duly catalogued even in this hasty sketch ; 
but space compels scant justice to many artists of 
the period, yet if the most popular are left un- 
noticed such omission will more easily right itself 
to any reader interested in the subject. 

Many show influences of the Gothic revival which 
was then in the air, but only those which have 
some idea of book decoration as opposed to in' 
serted pictures. For a certain " formal " ornamen- 




1LLUSTRATI0N FROM "CAPE TOWN DICKY" 

(C. W. l'AULKNER AND CO.) 

28 



tation of the page was in fashion in the " forties " 
and " fifties," even as it is to-day. 

To the artists named as representative of this 
period one must not forget to add Mr. Birket Foster, 
who devoted many of his felicitous studies of 
English pastoral life to the adornment of children's 
books. But speaking broadly of the period from 
the Queen's Accession to 1865, except that the 
subjects are of a sort supposed to appeal to young 
minds, their conception differs in no way from the 
work of the same artists in ordinary literature. The 
vignettes of scenery have childish instead of grown- 
up figures in the foregrounds ; the historical or 
legendary figures are as seriously depicted in the 
one class of books as in the other. Humour is 
conspicuous by its absence — or, to be more accu- 
rate, the humour is more often in the accompany- 
ing anecdote than in the 
picture. Probably if the 
authorship of hundreds of 
the illustrations of " Peter 
Parley's Annuals " and 
other books of this period 
could be traced, artists as 
famous as Charles Keene 
might be found to have 
contributed. But, owing 
to the mediocre wood- 
engraving employed, or to 
the poor printing, the 
pictures are singularly un- 
attractive. As a rule, they 
are unsigned and appear 
to be often mere pot- 
boilers—some no doubt 
intentionally disowned by 
the designer — others the 
work of 'prentice hands 
who afterwards became 
famous. Above all they 
are, essentially, illustra- 
tions to children's books 
only because they 
chanced to be printed 
therein, and have some- 
times done duty in 
" grown-up " books first. 
Hence, whatever their 
artistic merits, they do not 
appeal to a student of our 
present subject. They are 
accidentally present in 
books for children, but 
essentially they belong to 
ordinary illustrations. 

Indeed, speaking gene- 
rally, the time between 
" Felix Summerley " and 
Walter Crane, which saw 
by mice havers two Great Exhibitions and 

witnessed many advances 



and their Illustrators 




ILLUSTRATION FROM 



THE WHITE SWANS 

(By permission of Mr. Albert Hildcshcimcr) 



BY ALICE HAVERS 



in popular illustration, was too much occupied 
with catering for adults to be specially interested 
in juveniles. Hence, notwithstanding the names of 
" illustrious illustrators " to be found on their title- 
pages, no great injustice will be done if we leave 
this period and pass on to that which succeeded 
it. For the Great Exhibition fostered the idea that 
a smattering of knowledge of a thousand and one 
subjects was good. Hence the chastened gaiety 
of its mildly technical science, its popular manuals 
by Dr. Dionysius Lardner, and its return in another 
form to the earlier ideal that amusement should be 
combined with instruction. All sorts of attempts 
were initiated to make Astronomy palatable to 
babies, Botany an amusing game for children, Con- 
chology a parlour pastime, and so on through the 
alphabet of sciences down to Zoology, which is 
never out of favour with little ones, even if its pic- 
tures be accompanied by a dull encyloptedia of fact. 
Therefore, except so far as the work of certain 
illustrators, hereafter noticed, touches this period, we 
may leave it ; not because it is unworthy of most 
serious attention, for in Sir John Gilbert, Birket 
Foster, Harrison Weir, and the rest, we have men 
to reckon with whenever a chronicle of English 
illustration is in question, but only because they 
did not often feel disposed to make their work 
merely amusing. In saying this it is not suggested 



that they should have tried to be always 
humorous or archaic, still less to bring down their 
talent to the supposed level of a child ; but only 
to record the fact that they did not. For instance, 
Sir John Gilbert's spirited compositions to a "Boy's 
Book of Ballads " (Bell and Daldy) as you see them 
mixed with other of the master's work in the refer- 
ence scrap-books of the publishers, do not at once 
separate themselves from the rest as "juvenile" 
pictures. 

Nor as we approach the year 1855 (of the 
"Music Master"), and 1857 (when the famous 
edition of Tennyson's Poems began a series of 
superbly illustrated books), do we find any im- 
mediate change in the illustration of children's 
books. The solitary example of Sir Edward 
Burne-Jones's efforts in this direction, in the 
frontispiece and title-page to Maclaren's "The 
Fairy Family" (Longmans, 1857), does not affect 
this statement. But soon after, as the school of 
Walker and Pinwell became popular, there is a 
change in books of all sorts, and Millais and 
Arthur Hughes, two of the three illustrators of 
the notable " Music Master," come into our list of 
children's artists. At this point the attempt to 
weave a chronicle of children's books somewhat in 
the date of their publication must give way to a 
desultory notice of the most prominent illustrators. 

29 



Children's Books 



For we have come to the beginning 
of to-day rather than the end of 
yesterday, and can regard the "sixties" 
onwards as part of the present. 

It is true that the Millais of the 
wonderful designs to " The Para- 
bles" more often drew pictures of 
children than of children's pet 
themes, but all the same they are 
entirely lovable, and appeal equally 
to children of all ages. But his 
work in this field is scanty ; nearly 
all will be found in " Little Songs 
for me to Sing " (Cassell), or in 
" Lilliput Levee " (1867), and these 
latter had appeared previously in 
Good Words. Of Arthur Hughes's 
work we will speak later. 

Another artist whose work bulks 
large in our subject — Arthur Boyd 
Houghton — soon appears in sight, 
and whether he depicted babies at 
play as in " Home Thoughts and 
Home Scenes," a book of thirty-five 
pictures of little people, or imagined 
the scenes of stories dear to them in 
" The Arabian Nights," or books 
like "Ernie Elton" or "The Boy 
Pilgrims," written especially for them, in each 
he succeeded in winning their hearts, as every one 
must admit who chanced in childhood to possess 
his work. So much has been printed lately of 
the artist and his work, that here a bare reference 
will suffice. 

Arthur Hughes, whose work belongs to many of 
the periods touched upon in this rambling 





ILLUSTRATION FROM "THE RED FAIRY HOOK. BY LANCELOT 
SPEED (LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO.) 



ILLUSTRATION FROM "THE RED FAIRY BOOK. BY 
SPEED (LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO.) 



chronicle, may be called the children's " black-and- 
white " artist of the " sixties " (taking the date 
broadly as comprising the earlier " seventies " 
also), even as Walter Crane is their "limner in 
colours." His work is evidently conceived with 
the serious make-believe that is the very essence 
of a child's imagination. He seems to put down 
on paper the very spirit of fancy. Whether as an 
artist he is fully entitled to the rank 
some of his admirers (of whom I 
am one) would claim, is a question 
not worth raising here — the future 
will settle that for us. But as a chil- 
dren's illustrator he is surely illus- 
trator-in-chief to the Queen of the 
Fairies, and to a whole generation of 
readers of " Tom Brown's School- 
days " also. His contributions 
to " Good Words for the Young " 
would alone entitle him to high 
eminence. In addition to these, 
which include many stories per- 
haps better known in book form, 
such as : " The Boy in Grey " (H. 
Kingsley), George Macdonald's 
" At the Back of the North Wind," 
" The Princess and the Goblin," 
"Ranald Bannerman's Boyhood," 
" Gutta-Percha Willie " (these four 
were published by Strahan, and 
now may be obtained in reprints 
issued by Messrs. Blackie), and 
" Lilliput Lectures " (a book of 



30 



and their Illustrators 



essays for children by Matthew 
Browne), we find him as sole 
illustrator of Christina Rossetti's 
" Sing Song," " Five Days' Enter- 
tainment at Wentworth Grange," 
" Dealings with the Fairies," by 
George Macdonald (a very scarce 
volume nowadays), and the chief 
contributor to the first illustrated 
edition of " Tom Brown's School- 
days." In Novello's " National 
Nursery Rhymes " are also several 
of his designs. 

This list, which occupies so small 
a space, represents several hundred 
designs, all treated in a manner 
which is decorative (although it 
eschews the Dttrer line), but marked 
by strong " colour." Indeed, Mr. 
Hughes's technique is all his own, 
and if hard pressed one might own 
that in certain respects it is not 
impeccable. But if his textures 
are not sufficiently differentiated, 
or even if his drawing appears care- 
less at times — both charges not to 
be admitted without vigorous pro- 
test — granting the opponent's view for the 
it would be impossible to find the same 




ILLUSTRATION FROM "DOWN THE SNOW STAIRS. 
BROWNE (BLACKIE AND SON) 



BY GORDON 



moment, 
peculiar 




ILLUSTRATION FROM "THE RED FAIRY BOOK." 

(LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO. 



BY LANCELOT SPEED 



tenderness and naive fancy in the work of any 

other artist. His invention seems inexhaustible 

and his composition singularly 

fertile : he can create " bogeys " as 

well as " fairies." 

It is true that his children are 
related to the sexless idealised race 
of Sir Edward Burne-Jones's heroes 
and heroines ; they are purged of 
earthy taint, and idealised perhaps 
a shade too far. They adopt atti- 
tudes graceful if not realistic, they 
have always a grave serenity of 
expression ; and yet withal they 
endear themselves in a way wholly 
their own. It is strange that a 
period which has bestowed so much 
appreciation on the work of the 
artists of " the sixties " has seen 
no knight-errant with " Arthur 
Hughes " inscribed on his banner 
— no exhibition of his black-and- 
white work, no craze in auction- 
rooms for first editions of books he 
illustrated. He has, however, a 
steady if limited band of very 
faithful devotees, and perhaps — so 
inconsistent are we all — they love 
his work all the better because the 
blast of popularity has not trum- 
peted its merits to all and sundry. 

Three artists, often coupled to- 
gether — Walter Crane, Randolph 
Caldecott, and Kate Greenaway 
3i 



Children s Books 



■ — have really little in common, except that they 
all designed books for children which were pub- 
lished about the same period. For Walter Crane 
is the serious apostle of art for the nursery, who 
strove to beautify its ideal, to decorate its legends 
with a real knowledge of architecture and costume, 
and to "mount "the fairy stories with a certain 
archaeological splendour, as Sir Henry Irving has set 
himself to mount Shakespearean drama. Caldecott 
was a fine literary artist, who was able to express 
himself with rare facility in pictures in place of 
words, so that his comments upon a simple text 
reveal endless subtleties of thought. Indeed, he 
continued to make a fairly logical sequence of 
incidents out of the famous nonsense paragraph 
invented to confound mnemonics by its absolute 
irrelevancy. Miss Greenaway's charm lies in the" 




ILLUSTRATION l'ROM 



32 



1 ROBINSON CRUSOE 

(lH.ACKIE AND SON) 



fact that she first recognised quaintness in what 
had been considered merely " old fashion," and 
continued to infuse it with a glamour that made it 
appear picturesque. Had she dressed her figures 
in contemporary costume most probably her work 
would have taken its place with the average, and 
never obtained more than common popularity. 

But Mr. Walter Crane is almost unique in his 
profound sympathy with the fantasies he imagines. 
There is no trace of make-believe in his designs. 
On the contrary, he makes the old legends become 
vital, not because of the personalities he bestows 
on his heroes and fairy princesses — his people 
move often in a rapt ecstasy — but because the 
adjuncts of his mise-en-scenes are realised inti- 
mately. His prince is much more the typical hero 
than any particular person ; his fair ladies might 
exchange places, and few would 
notice the difference ; but when 
it comes to the environment, 
the real incidents of the story, 
then no one has more fully 
grasped both the dramatic force 
and the local colour. If his 
people are not peculiarly alive, 
they are in harmony with the 
re-edified cities and woods that 
sprang up under his pencil. He 
does not bestow the hoary touch 
of antiquity on his mediaeval 
buildings ; they are all new and 
comely, in better taste probably 
than the actual buildings, but 
not more idealised than are his 
people. He is the true artist of 
fairyland, because he recognises 
its practical possibilities, and yet 
does not lose the glamour which 
was never on sea or land. No 
artist could give more cultured 
notions of fairyland. In his 
work the vulgar glories of a pan- 
tomime are replaced by well- 
conceived splendour ; the tawdry 
adjuncts of a throne-room, as re- 
presented in a theatre, are ignored. 
Temples and palaces of the early 
Renaissance, filled with graceful 
— perhaps a shade too suave — 
figures, embody all the charm of 
the impossible country, with 
none of the sordid drawbacks 
that are common to real life. In 
modern dress, as in his pictures 
to many of Mrs. Molesworth's 
stories, there is a certain unlike- 
ness to life as we know it, which 
does not detract from the effect 
of the design ; but while this is 
perhaps distracting in stories of 
contemporary life, it is a very 



BY CORDON BROWNE 







ifr- 



~t£s> 



(CASSELL AND CO.) 



ILLUSTRATION FROM 
"ROBINSON CRUSOE." 
BY WILL PAGET. 



CJiildixris Books 



real advantage in those of folk-lore, which have 
no actual date, and are therefore unafraid of 
anachronisms of any kind. The spirit of his work 
is, as it should be, intensely serious, yet the con- 
ceits which are showered upon it exactly harmonise 
with the mood of most of the stories that have 
attracted his pencil. Grimm's " Household Stories," 
as he pictured them, are a lasting joy. The "Blue- 
beard " and " Jack and the Beanstalk " toy books, 
the " Princess Belle Etoile," and a dozen others 
are nursery classics, and classics also of the other 
nursery where children of a larger growth take 
their pleasure. 

Without a shade of disrespect towards all the 
other artists represented in this special number, 




ILLUSTRATION FROM "ENGLISH FAIRY TALES" 

(DAVID nutt) 

34 



had it been devoted solely to Mr. Walter Crane's 
designs, it would have been as interesting in every 
respect. There is probably not a single illus- 
trator here mentioned who would not endorse such 
a statement. For as a maker of children's books, 
no one ever attempted the task he fulfilled so 
gaily, and no one since has beaten him on his 
own ground. Even Mr. Howard Pyle, his most 
worthy rival, has given us no wealth of colour- 
prints. So that the famous toy books still retain 
their well-merited position as the most delightful 
books for the nursery and the studio, equally 
beloved by babies and artists. 

Although a complete iconography of Mr. Walter 
Crane's work has not yet been made, the following 

list of such of his 
children's books as I 
have been able to 
trace may be worth 
printing for the 
benefit of those who 
have not access to 
the British Museum ; 
where, by the way, 
many are not in- 
cluded in that section 
of its catalogue de- 
voted to " Crane, 
Walter." 

The famous series 
of toy books by Wal- 
ter Crane include : 
" The Railroad A B 
C," " The Farmyard 
A B C," "Sing a 
Song of Sixpence," 
" The Waddling 
Frog," " The Old 
Courtier," " Multipli- 
cation in Verse," 
" Chattering Jack," 
" How Jessie was 
Lost," " Grammar in 
Rhyme," "Annie and 
Jack in London," 
" One, Two, Buckle 
my Shoe," " The 
Fairy Ship," "Ad- 
ventures of Puffy," 
" This Little Pig 
went to Market," 
" King Luckieboy's 
Party," " Noah's Ark 
Alphabet," "My 
Mother," "The 
Forty Thieves," 
" The Three Bears," 
"Cinderella," "Val- 
entine and Orson," 
" Puss in Boots," 
"Old Mother Hub- 



IiY J. P. BATTEN 






"SO LIGHT OF FOOT, SO 
LIGHT OF SPIRIT." BY 
CHARLES ROBINSON 



. 






















•; 



08 ,T(XH HO THOU 02" 

Ytf "TItfl'Jri HO TlliJkl 

'/lO^/llHOH ^HJflAHO 







s 



and their Ilhistrators 




Three Rs," " Little Queen Anne " 
(1885-6), Hawthorne's "A Won- 
der Book," first published in 
America, is a quarto volume with 
elaborate designs in colour ; and 
" The Golden Primer " (1884), two 
vols., by Professor Meiklejohn 
(Blackwood) is, like all the above, 
in colour. 

Of a series of stories by Mrs. 
Molesworth the following volumes 
are illustrated by Mr. Crane : — 
"A Christmas Posy" (1888), 
"Carrots" (1876), "A Christmas 
Child " 
Land " 
Clock " 
Farm " 
Dear " 
(1881), 
(1887), 
(1 



(1884), 

(1877), 
(1887), 
(1878), 
" Little 



ILLUSTRATION FROM "ENGLISH FAIRY TALES " BY J. 

(DAVID NUTT) 



bard," "The Absurd A B C," "Little Red 
Riding Hood," " Jack and the Beanstalk," "Blue 
Beard," " Baby's Own Alphabet," " The Sleeping 
Beauty." All these were published at sixpence. 
A larger series at one shilling includes : " The 
Frog Prince," " Goody Two Shoes," " Beauty and 
the Beast," "Alphabet of Old Friends," "The 
Yellow Dwarf," "Aladdin," "The Hind in the 
Wood," and "Princess Belle Etoile." All these 
were published from 1873 onwards by Routledge, 
and printed in colours by Edmund Evans. 

A small quarto series Routledge published at five 
shillings includes: "The Baby's Opera," "The 
Baby's Bouquet," "The Baby's Own ^Esop." 
Another and larger quarto, "Flora's Feast" (1889), 
and "Queen Summer" (1891), were both pub- 
lished by Cassells, who issued also " Legends for 
Lionel" (1887). "Pan Pipes," an oblong folio 
with music was issued by Routledge. Messrs. 
Marcus Ward produced " Slate and Pencilvania," 
" Pothooks and Perseverance," " Romance of the 



D. BATTEN 



Christmas-tree 
' The Cuckoo 
' Four Winds 
' Grandmother 
Herr Baby " 
Miss Peggy " 
' The Rectory Children " 
"Rosy" (1882), "The 
Tapestry Room" (1879), "Tell 
me a Story," " Two Little Waifs," 
"Us" (1885), and " Children of 
the Castle " (1890). Earlier in 
date are " Stories from Memel " 
(1864), "Stories of Old," "Chil- 
dren's Sayings " (1861), two series, 
"Poor Match" (186 1), "The 
Merry Heart," with eight coloured 
plates (Cassell) ; " King Gab's 
Story Bag " (Cassell), " Magic of 
Kindness " (1869), " Queen of the 
Tournament," " History of Poor 
Match," " OurUncle's Old Home " 
(1872), "Sunny Days" (1871), 
" The Turtle Dove's Nest " (1890). 
Later come " The Necklace of 
Princess Fiorimonde " (1880), the 
famous edition of Grimm's " Household Stories " 
(1882), both published by Macmillan, and C. C. 
Harrison's "Folk and Fairy Tales" (1885), 
"The Happy Prince" (Nutt, 1888). Of these 
the " Grimm " and " Fiorimonde " are perhaps 
two of the most important illustrated books noted 
in these pages. 

Randolph Caldecott founded a school that still 
retains fresh hold of the British public. But with 
all respect to his most loyal disciple, Mr. Hugh 
Thomson, one doubts if any successor has equalled 
the master in the peculiar subtlety of his pictured 
comment upon the bare text. You have but to 
turn to any of his toy books to see that at times 
each word, almost each syllable, inspired its own 
picture ; and that the artist not only conceived 
the scene which the text called into being, but each 
successive step before and after the reported 
incident itself. In " The House that Jack Built," 
" This is the Rat that Ate the Malt " supplies a 
subject for five pictures. First the owner carrying 

35 



Children 's Books 



in the malt, next the rat driven 
away by the man, then the rat 
peeping up into the deserted room, 
next the rat studying a placard 
upside down inscribed "four 
measures of malt," and finally, the 
gorged animal sitting upon an 
empty measure. So " This is the 
Cat that Killed the Rat " is ex- 
panded into five pictures. The 
dog has four, the cat three, and 
the rest of the story is amplified 
with its secondary incidents duly 
sought and depicted. This literary 
expression is possibly the most 
marked characteristic of a facile 
and able draughtsman. He studied 
his subject as no one else ever 
studied it — he must have played 
with it, dreamed of it, worried it 
night and day, until he knew it ten 
times better than its author. Then 
he portrayed it simply and with 
irresistible vigour, with a fine 
economy of line and colour ; when 
colour is added, it is mainly as a 
gay convention, and not closely 
imitative of nature. The sixteen 
toy books which bear his name are 




ILLUSTRATION FROM THE WONDER CLOCK 

(HARPER AND brothers) 



BY HOWARD PYLE 




ILLUSTRATION PROM 



.36 



'THE WONDER CLOCK ' 
(HARPER AND BROTHERS) 



BY HOWARD PYLE 



too well known to make a list of 
their titles necessary. A few other 
children's books — " What the 
Blackbird Said " (Routledge, 
1881), "Jackanapes," " Lob-lie- 
by-the-Fire," " Daddy Darwin's 
Dovecot," all by Mrs. Ewing 
(S.P.C.K.), " Baron Bruno " (Mac- 
millan), " Some of ^Esop's Fables " 
(Macmillan), and one or two others, 
are of secondary importance from 
our point of view here. 

It is no overt dispraise to say 
of Miss Kate Greenaway that few 
artists made so great a reputation 
in so small a field. Inspired by 
the children's books of 1820 (as a 
reference to a design, " Paths of 
Learning," reproduced on p. 9 
will show), and with a curious 
naivety that was even more un- 
concerned in its dramatic effect 
than were the " missal marge " pic- 
tures of the illuminators, by her 
simple presentation of the child- 
ishness of childhood she won all 
hearts. Her little people are the 
bean -idea I of nursery propriety — 
clean, good-tempered, happy small 




(harper and brothers. 1S94) 



ILLUSTRATION FROM 
"THE WONDER CLOCK." 
BY HOWARD PYLE 



Children s Books 



gentlefolk. For, though they 
assume peasants' garb, they never 
betray boorish manners. Their 
very abandon is only that of nice 
little people in play-hours, and in 
their wildest play the penalties 
that await torn knickerbockers or 
soiled frocks are not absent from 
their minds. Whether they really 
interested children as they de- 
lighted their elders is a moot point. 
The verdict of many modern chil- 
dren is unanimous in praise, and 
possibly because they represented 
the ideal every properly educated 
child is supposed to cherish. The 
slight taint of priggishness which 
occasionally is there did not reveal 
itself to a child's eye. Miss Green- 
away's art, however, is not one to 
analyse but to enjoy. That she is 
a most careful and painstaking 
worker is a fact, but one that would 
not in itself suffice to arouse one's 
praise. The absence of effort 
which makes her work look happy 
and without effort is not its least 
charm. Her gay yet "cultured" 
colour, her appreciation of green 




ILLUSTRATION FROM " THE WONDER CLOCK " BY HOWARD PYLE 

(HARPER AND brothers) 




ILLUSTRATION FROM 



' THE WONDER CLOCK 
(HARPER AND brothers) 



BY HOWARD PYLE 



38 



chairs and formal gardens, all came 
at the right time. The houses by 
a Norman Shaw found a Morris 
and a Liberty ready with furniture 
and fabrics, and all sorts of manu- 
facturers devoting themselves to 
the production of pleasant objects, 
to fill them ; and for its drawing- 
room tables Miss Greenaway pro- 
duced books that were in the same 
key. But as the architecture and 
the fittings, at their best, proved to 
be no passing whim, but the germ 
of a style, so her illustration is 
not a trifling sport, but a very real, 
if small, item in the history of the 
evolution of picture-books. Good 
taste is the prominent feature of her 
work, and good taste, if out of 
fashion for a time, always returns, 
and is treasured by future genera- 
tions, no matter whether it be in 
accord with the expression of the 
hour or distinctly archaic. Time 
is a very stringent critic, and much 
that passed as tolerably good taste 
when it fell in with the fashion, 
looks hopelessly vulgar when the 
tide of popularity has retreated. 



ami their Illustrators 



Miss Greenaway's work appears as refined ten 
years after its " boom," as it did when it was at 
the flood. That in itself is perhaps an evidence 
of its lasting power ; for ten or a dozen years 
impart a certain shabby and worn aspect that has 
no flavour of the antique as a saving virtue to 
atone for its shortcomings." 

It seems almost superfluous to give a list of the 
principal books by Miss Kate Greenaway, yet 
for the convenience of collectors the names of 
the most noteworthy volumes may be set down. 
Those with coloured plates are : " A, Apple Pie " 
(1886), "Alphabet" (1885), "Almanacs" (from 
1882 yearly), "Birthday Book" (1880), "Book 
of Games" (1889), "A Day in a Child's Life" 
(1885), "King Pepito" (1889), "Language of 



Flowers" (1S84), "Little Ann" (18S3), "Mari- 
gold Garden" (1885), " Mayor's Spelling Book" 
(1885), "Mother Goose" (1886), "The Pied 
Piper of Hamelin" (1889), "Painting Books" 
(1879 ar) d 1885), "Queen Victoria's Jubilee Gar- 
land " (1887), " Queen of the Pirate Isle " (1886), 
"Under the Window" (1879). Others with 
black-and-white illustrations include " Child of 
the Parsonage" (1874), "Fairy Gifts" (1875), 
"Seven Birthdays" (1876), "Starlight Stories" 
(1877), " Topo" (1878), "Dame Wiggins of Lee " 
(Allen, 1885), "Stories from the Eddas " (1883). 

Many designs, some in colour, are to be found 
in volumes of Little Folks, Little Wideawake, Every 
Girl's Magazine, Girl's Own Paper, and elsewhere. 

The art of Miss Greenaway is part of the legend of 



*®te®AGcREEN«tf GRAVEL^ 




Green gravel, green gravel , -l^j/^j/^i^ ■ 1 ? | 
"O^b^Vl^N&T^-Ayour gra.ss is so green . -*> -* -o "~ 



ILLUSTRATION FROM "CHILDREN'S SINGING GAMES" 

(DAVID NUTT. 1S94) 



BY WINIFRED SMITH 



39 



Children s Books 




ILLUSTRATION FROM " UNDINE " 



(chapman and hall) 



B\ HEYWOOD SUMNER 



the festhetic craze, and while its storks and sun- 
flowers have faded, and some of its eccentricities are 
forgotten, the quaint little pictures on Christmas 
cards, in toy books, and elsewhere, are safely in- 
stalled as items of the art product of the century. 
Indeed, many a popular Royal Academy picture 
is likely to be forgotten before the illustrations 
from her hand. Bric-a-brac they were, but more 
than that, for they gave infinite pleasure to thou- 
sands of children of all ages, and if they do not 
rise up and call her blessed, they retain a very 




ILLUSTRATION FROM "THE RED FAIRY HOOK 

(LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO. 1 895) 

40 



warm memory of one who gave them so much 
innocent pleasure. 

Sir John Tenniel's illustrations, beginning as 
they do with "Undine" (1845), already men- 
tioned, include others in volumes for young people 
that need not be quoted. But with his designs 
for "Alice in Wonderland" (Macmillan, 1866), 
and "Through the Looking Glass" (1872), we 
touch the two most notable children's books of 
the century. To say less would be inadequate 
and to say more needless. For every one knows 
the incomparable inventions which 
" Lewis Carroll " imagined and 
Sir John Tenniel depicted. They 
are veritable classics, of which, as 
it is too late to praise them, no 
more need be said. 

Certain coloured picture books 
by J. E. Rogers were greeted with 
extravagant eulogy at the time 
they appeared " in the seventies." 
" Worthy to be hung at the Aca- 
demy beside the best pictures of 
Millais or Sandys," one fatuous 
critic observed. Looking over 
their pages again, it seems strange 
that their very weak drawing and 
crude colour could have satisfied 
people familiar with Mr. Walter 
Crane's masterly work in a not 
dissimiliar style. " Ridicula Redi- 
viva " and " Mores Ridiculi" (both 
Macmillan), were illustrations of 
nursery rhymes. To " The Fairy 
Book " (1870), a selection of old 
stories re-told by the author of 
" John Halifax," Mr. Rogers con- 



HY I.. Sl'EHB 



and their Illustrators 



tributed many full pages in colour, and also to Mr. 
F. C. Burnand's " Present Pastimes of Merrie Eng- 
land " (1872). They are interesting as documents, 
but not as art ; for their lack of academic knowledge 
is not counterbalanced by peculiar " feeling " or 
ingenious conceit. They are merely attempts to 
do again what Mr. H. S. Marks had done better 
previously. It seems ungrateful to condemn books 
that but for renewed acquaintance might have kept 
the glamour of the past ; and yet, realising how 
much feeble effort has been praised since it was 




ILLUSTRATION FROM 



• KATAWAMI'US " 

(DAVID NUTT) 



" only for children," it is impossible to keep silence 
when the truth is so evident. 

Alfred Crowquill most probably contributed all 
the pictures to " Robinson Crusoe," " Blue Beard," 
and " Red Riding Hood " told in rhyme by 
F. W. N. Bayley, which have been noticed among 
his books of the " forties." One of the full pages, 
which appear to be lithographs, is clearly signed. 
He also illustrated the adventures of " Master Tyll 
Owlglass," an edition of " Baron Munchausen," 
" Picture Fables," " The Careless Chicken," 

" Funny Leaves for the 
Younger Branches," 
" Laugh and Grow 
Thin," and a host of 
other volumes. Yet 
the pictures in these, 
amusing as they are 
in their way, do not 
seem likely to attract 
an audience again at 
any future time. 

E. V. B., initials 
which stand for the 
Hon. Mrs. Boyle, are 
found on many vol- 
umes of the past 
twenty-five years which 
have enjoyed a special 
reputation. Certainly 
her drawings, if at 
times showing much 
of the amateur, have 
also a curious 
"quality," which ac- 
counts for the very 
high praise they have 
won from critics of 
some standing. " The 
Story without an End," 
" Child's Play"(i858), 
" The New Child's 
Play," " The Magic 
Valley," " Andersen 
Fairy Tales " (Low, 
1882), " Beauty and 
the Beast " (a quarto 
with colour-prints by 
Leighton Bros.), are 
the most important. 
Looking at them 
dispassionately now, 
there is yet a trace of 
some of the charm 
that provoked ap- 
plause a little more 
than they deserve. 

In British art this 

curious fascination 

exerted by the amateur 

is always confronting 

41 



liY ARCHIE MACGREGOR 



Children's Books 




ILLUSTRATION FROM "THE SLEEPING BEAUTY. 
BY R. ANNING BELL (DENT AND CO.) 



us. The work of E.V. B. has great qualities, yet any 
pupil of a board school would draw better. Never- 
theless it pleases more than academic technique of 
high merit that lacks just that one quality which, for 
want of a better word, we call " culture." In the 
designs by Louisa, Marchioness of Waterford, one 
encounters genius with absolutely faltering tech- 
nique ; and many who know how rare is the 
slightest touch of genius, forgive the equally 
important mastery of material which must accom- 
pany it to produce work of lasting value. 

Mr. H. S. Marks designed two nursery books 
for Messrs. Routledge, and contributed to many 
others, including J. W. Elliott's " National Nursery 
Rhymes " (Novello), whence our illustration has 
been taken. Two series of picture books contain- 
ing mediaeval figures with gold background, by J. 
Moyr Smith, if somewhat lacking in the qualities 
which appeal to children, may have played a good 
part in educating them to admire conventional flat 
treatment, with a decorative purpose that was 
unusual in the " seventies," when most of them 
appeared. 

In later years, Miss Alice Havers in " The White 
Swans," and " Cape Town Dicky " (Hildesheimer), 
and many lady artists of less conspicuous ability, have 
done a quantity of graceful and elaborate pictures 
of children rather than for children. The art of 
42 



this later period shows better drawing, better 
colour, better composition than had been the 
popular average before ; but it generally lacks 
humour, and a certain vivacity of expression which 
children appreciate. 

In the "sixties" and "seventies" were many illus- 
trators of children's books who left no great mark 
except on the memories of those who were young 
enough at the time to enjoy their work thoroughly, 
if not very critically. Among these may be placed 
William Brunton, who illustrated several of the 
Right Hon. G. Knatchbull-Hugessen's fairy stories, 
" Tales at Tea Time " for instance, and was 
frequent among the illustrators of Hood's Annuals. 
Charles H. Ross (at one time editor of Judy) and 
creator of " Ally Sloper," the British Punchinello, 
produced at least one memorable book for chil- 
dren. " Queens and Kings and other Things," a 
folio volume printed in gold and colour, with 
nonsense rhymes and pictures, almost as funny 
as those of Edward Lear himself. " The Boy 
Crusoe," and many other books of somewhat 
ephemeral character are his, and Routledge's 
" Every Boy's Magazine " contains many of his 
designs. Just as these pages are being corrected 
the news of his death is announced. 




ILLUSTRATION FROM "HAIRY GUTS." 
BY II. GRANVILLE FELL (UEN T AND CO. 




(methuen and co. 1895) 



ILLUSTRATION FROM 
"A BOOK OF NURSERY 
SONGS AND RHYMES" 
BY MARY J. NEWILL 



Children's Books 



Others, like George Du Maurier, so rarely 
touched the subject that they can hardly be 
regarded as wholly belonging to our theme. Yet 
" Misunderstood," by Florence Montgomery (1879), 
illustrated by Du Maurier, is too popular to leave 
unnoticed. Mr. A. W. Bayes, who has deservedly 
won fame in other fields, illustrated " Andersen's 
Tales " (Warne, 1865) probably his earliest work, 
as a contemporary review speaks of the admir- 
able designs "by an artist whose name is new 
to us." 

It is a matter for surprise and regret that Mr. 
Howard Pyle's illustrated books are not as well 
known in England as they deserve to be. And 




ILLUSTRATION FROM 



44 



THIS ELF-ERRANT 

(LAWRENCE AND UULLEN. l!>95) 



this is the more vexing when you find that any one 
with artistic sympathy is completely converted to 
be a staunch admirer of Mr. Pyle's work by a 
sight of " The Wonder Clock," a portly quarto, 
published by Harper Brothers in 1894. It seems 
to be the only book conceived in purely Dttrer- 
esque line, which can be placed in rivalry with 
Mr. Walter Crane's illustrated " Grimm," and wise 
people will be only too delighted to admire both 
without attempting to compare them. Mr. Pyle 
is evidently influenced by Dtirer — with a strong 
trace of Rossetti — but he carries both influences 
easily, and betrays a strong personality throughout 
all the designs. The " Merry Adventures of 
Robin Hood" and 
"Otto of the Silver Hand " 
are two others of about 
the same period, and the 
delightful volume collect- 
ed from Harper's Young 
People for the most part, 
entitled " Pepper and 
Salt," may be placed with 
them. All the illustra- 
tions to these are in pure 
line, and have the appear- 
ance of being drawn not 
greatly in excess of the 
reproduced size. Of all 
these books Mr. Howard 
Pyle is author as well as 
illustrator. 

Of late he has changed 
his manner in line, show- 
ing at times, especially in 
"Twilight Land" (Os- 
good, Mcllvaine, 1896), 
the influence of Vierge, 
but even in that book the 
frontispiece and many 
other designs keep to his 
earlier manner. 

In " The Garden be- 
hind the Moon " (issued 
in London by Messrs. 
Lawrence and Bullen) the 
chief drawings are entirely 
in wash, and yet are singu- 
larly decorative in their 
effect. The " Story of 
Jack Bannister's For- 
tunes " shows the artist's 
" colonial " style, " Men 
of Iron," " A Modern 
Aladdin," Oliver Wendell 
Holmes' " One - Horse 
Shay," are other fairly 
recent volumes. His illus- 
trations have not been 
confined to his own stories 
as "In the Valley," by 



BY \V. E. F. BRITTEN 




< u 

33 Pi 




S S 

3 a 



W a 



Q rvj 



Children s Books 



Harold Frederic, " Stops of Various 
Quills" (poems byW. D. Howells), 
go to prove. 

It is strange that Mr. Heywood 
Sumner, who, as his notable " Fitz- 
roy Pictures " would alone suffice 
to prove, is peculiarly well equipped 
for the illustration of children's 
books, has done but few, and of these 
none are in colour. " Cinderella " 
(1882), rhymes by H. S. Leigh, set 
to music by J. Farmer, contains very 
pleasant decoration by Mr. Sumner. 
Next comes "Sintram " (1883), a 
notable edition of De la Motte 
Fouque"'s romance, followed by 
"Undine" (in 1885). With a book 
on the " Parables," by A.L.O.E., 
published about 1884 ; " The Besom 
Maker" (1880), a volume of country 
ditties with the old music, and 
" Jacob and the Raven," with thirty- 
nine illustrations (Allen, 1896), the 
best example of his later manner, and 
a book which all admirers of the more 
severe order of " decorative illus- 
tration " will do well to preserve, the 
list is complete. Whether a certain 
austerity of line has made publishers 
timid, or whether the artist has de- 
clined commissions, the fact remains 
that the literature of the nursery has 
not yet had its full share from Mr. 
Heywood Sumner. Luckily, if its 
shelves are the less full, its walls are 
gayer by the many Fitzroy pictures 
he has made so effectively, which 
readers of The Studio have seen 
reproduced from time to time in these pages. 

Mr. H. J. Ford's work occupies so much space 
in the library of a modern child, that it seems less 
necessary to discuss it at length here, for he is 
found either alone or co-operating with Mr. 
Jacomb Hood and Mr. Lancelot Speed, in each of 
the nine volumes of fairy tales and true stories 
(Blue, Red, Green, Yellow, Pink, and the rest), 
edited by Mr. Andrew Lang, and published by 
Longmans. More than that, at the Fine Art 
Society in May 1895, Mr. Ford exhibited seventy- 
one original drawings, chiefly those for the " Yel- 
low Fairy Book," so that his work is not only 
familiar to the inmates of the nursery, but to 
modern critics who disdain mere printed pictures 
and care for nothing but autograph work. Cer- 
tainly his designs have often lost much by their 
great reduction, for many of the originals were 
almost as large as four of these pages. His work 
is full of imagination, full of detail ; perhaps at 
times a little overcrowded, to the extent of con- 
fusion. But children are not averse from a picture 
that requires much careful inspection to reveal all 
46 




ILLUSTRATION FROM "THE FLAME FLOWER. 

(dent and co. 1896) 



BY J. F. SULLIVAN 



its story; and Mr. Ford's accessories all help to 
reiterate the main theme. As these eight volumes 
have an average of 100 pictures in each, and Mr. 
Ford has designed the majority, it is evident that, 
although his work is almost entirely confined to 
one series, it takes a very prominent place in 
current juvenile literature. That he must by this 
time have established his position as a prime 
favourite with the small people goes without saying. 
Mr. Leslie Brooke has also a long catalogue of 
notable work in this class. For since Mr. Walter 
Crane ceased to illustrate the long series of Mrs. 
Molesworth's stories, he has carried on the 
record. " Sheila's Mystery," " The Carved Lions," 
" Mary," " My New Home," " Nurse Heathcote's 
Story," « The Girls and I," " The Oriel Window," 
and " Miss Mouse and her Boys " (all Macmillan), 
are the titles of these books to which he has 
contributed. A very charming frontispiece and 
title to John Oliver Hobbs' " Prince Toto," 
which appeared in "The Parade," must not be 
forgotten. The most fanciful of his designs are 
undoubtedly the hundred illustrations to Mr. 



and their Illustrators 



Andrew Lang's delightful collection of "Nursery 
Rhymes," just published by F.Warne & Co. These 
reveal a store of humour that the less boisterous 
fun of Mrs. Molesworth had denied him the 
opportunity of expressing. 

Mr. C. E. Brock, whose delightful compositions, 
somewhat in the " Hugh Thomson " manner, em- 
bellish several volumes of Messrs. Macmillan's 
Cranford series, has illustrated also " The Para- 
chute," and " English Fairy and Folk Tales," by 
E. S. Hartland (1893), and also supplied two 
pictures to that most fascinating volume prized by 
all lovers of children, " W. V., Her Book," by 
W. Canton. Perhaps " Westward Ho ! " should 
also be included in this list, for whatever its first 
intentions, it has long been annexed by bolder 
spirits in the nursery. 

A. B. Frost, by his cosmopo- 
litan fun, " understanded of all 
people," has probably aroused 
more hearty laughs by his in- 
imitable books than even Cal- 
decott himself. " Stuff and 
Nonsense," and "The Bull 
Calf," T. B. Aldrich's " Story of 
a Bad Boy," and many another 
volume of American origin, that 
is now familiar to every Briton 
with a sense of humour, are the 
most widely known. It is need- 
less to praise the literally inimit- 
able humour of the tragic series 
"Our Cat took Rat Poison." 
In Lewis Carroll's " Rhyme ? 
and Reason ? " (1883), Mr. Frost 
shared with Henry Holiday the 
task of illustrating a larger 
edition of the book first pub- 
lished under the title of " Phan- 
tasmagoria " (1869); he illus- 
trated also " A Tangled Tale " 
(1886), by the same author, and 
this is perhaps the only volume 
of British origin of which he is 
sole artist. Mr. Henry Holiday 
was responsible for the classic 
pictures to " The Hunting of the 
Snark " by Lewis Carroll (1876). 

Mr. R. Anning Bell does not 
appear to have illustrated many 
books for children. Of these, 
the two which introduced Mr. 
Dent's " Banbury Cross" series 
are no doubt the best known. 
In fact, to describe " Jack the 
Giant Killer " and the " Sleep- 
ing Beauty " in these pages 
would be an insult to " sub- 
scribers from the first." A 
story, " White Poppies," by May 
Kendall, which ran through 



Sylvia's Journal, is a little too grown-up to be in- 
cluded ; nor can the " Heroines of the Poets," 
which appeared in the same place, be dragged in 
to augment the scanty list, any more than the 
" Midsummer Night's Dream " or " Keat's Poems." 
It is singular that the fancy of Mr. Anning Bell, 
which seems exactly calculated to attract a child 
and its parent at the same time, has not been 
more frequently requisitioned for this purpose. In 
the two "Banbury Cross" volumes there is evidence 
of real sympathy with the text, which is by no 
means as usual in pictures to fairy tales as it 
should be ; and a delightfully harmonious sense 'of 
decoration rare in any book, and still more rare in 
those expressly designed for small people. 

The amazing number of Mr. Gordon Browne's 
illustrations leaves a would-be iconographer 




ILLUSTRATION FROM " RED APPLE AND SILVER BELLS. 

BY ALICE B. WOODWARD. (BLACKIE AND SON. 1897) 



47 



Children s Books 



appalled. So many thousand designs — and all so 
good — deserve a lengthened and exhaustive eulogy. 
But space absolutely forbids it, and as a large number 
cater for older children than most of the books 
here noticed, on that ground one may be forgiven 
the inadequate notice. If an illustrator deserved 
to attract the attention of collectors it is surely 
this one, and so fertile has he been that a complete 
set of all his work would take no little time to 
get together. Here are the titles of a few 
jotted at random : " Bonnie Prince Charlie," " For 
Freedom's Cause," " St. George for England," 
" Orange and Green," " With Give in India," 
« With Wolfe in Canada," " True to the Old Flag," 
"By Sheer Pluck," "Held Fast for England," 
" For Name and Fame," " With Lee in Virginia," 
" Facing Death," " Devon Boys," " Nat the 
Naturalist," " Bunyip Land," " The Lion of St. 
Mark," "Under Drake's Flag," "The Golden 
Magnet," " The Log of the Flying Fish," " In the 
King's Name," " Margery Merton's Girlhood," 
" Down the Snow Stairs," " Stories of Old Re- 
nown," " Seven Wise Scholars," " Chirp and 
Chatter," " Gulliver's Travels," " Robinson 
Crusoe," " Hetty Gray," "A Golden Age," " Muir 
Fenwick's Failure," " Winnie's Secret " (all so far 
are published by Blackie and Son). " National 
Nursery Rhymes," " Fairy Tales from Grimm," 





ILLUSTRATION FROM " KATAWAMPUS. 

BY ARCHIE MACGREGOR. (llAVID NUTT) 
4 8 



ILLUSTRATION FROM "TO TELL THE KING THE 

SKY IS FALLING." BY ALICE WOODWARD 

(BLACKIE AND SON. 1S96) 



" Sintram, and Undine," " Sweetheart Travellers," 
" Five, Ten and Fifteen," " Gilly Flower," " Prince 
Boohoo," "A Sister's Bye-hours," " Jim," and " A 
Flock of Four," are all published by Gardner, 
Darton & Co., and " Effie," by Griffith & Farran. 
When one realises that not a few of these books 
contain a hundred illustrations, and that the list is 
almost entirely from two publishers' catalogues, 
some idea of the fecundity of Mr. Gordon Browne's 
output is gained. But only a vague idea, as his 
" Shakespeare," with hundreds of drawings and a 
whole host of other books, cannot be even mentioned. 
It is sufficient to name but one — say the example 
from " Robinson Crusoe " (Blackie), reproduced on 
page 32 — to realise Mr. Gordon Browne's vivid and 
picturesque interpretation of fact, or " Down the 
Snow Stairs" (Blackie), also illustrated, with a 
grotesque owl-like creature, to find that in pure 
fantasy his exuberant imagination is no less equal 
to the task. In " Chirp and Chatter " (Blackie), 
fifty-four illustrations of animals masquerading as 
human show delicious humour. At times his 
technique appears somewhat hasty, but, as a rule, 
the method he adopts is as good as the com- 
position he depicts. He is in his own way the 
leader of juvenile illustration of the non-1 Mirer 
school. 



and their Illustrators 



Mr. Harry Furniss's coloured toy-books — 
" Romps " — are too well known to need descrip- 
tion, and many another juvenile volume owes its 
attraction to his facile pencil. Of these, the two 
later " Lewis Caroll's " — " Sylvia and Bruno," and 
" Sylvia and Bruno, Concluded," are perhaps most 
important. As a curious narrative, "Travels in the 
Interior " (of a human body) must not be forgotten. 
It certainly called forth much ingenuity on the part 
of the artist. In " Romps," and in all his work 
for children, there is an irrepressible sense of 
movement and of exuberant vitality in his figures ; 
but, all the same, they are more like Fred. Walker's 
idyllic youngsters having romps than like real 
everyday children. 

Mr. Linley Samboume's most ingenious pen has 
been all too seldom employed on children's books. 
Indeed, one that comes first to memory, the " New 
Sandford and Merton " (1872), is hardly entitled to 
be classed among them, but the travesty of the 
somewhat pedantic narrative, interspersed with 
fairly amusing anecdotes, that Thomas Day pub- 
lished in 1783, is superb. No matter how familiar 
it may be, it is simply impossible to avoid laughing 
anew at the smug little Harry, the sanctimonious 
tutor, or the naughty Tommy, as Mr. Sambourne 
has realised them. The " Anecdotes of the Croco- 
dile " and "The Presumptuous Dentist" are no 
less good. The way he has turned a prosaic hat-rack 
into an instrument of torture would alone mark 



Mr. Sambourne as a comic draughtsman of the 
highest type. Nothing he has done in political 
cartoons seems so likely to live as these burlesques. 
A little known book, " The Royal Umbrella " 
(1888), which contains the delightful " Cat Gar- 
deners " here reproduced, and the very well-known 
edition of Charles Kingsley's "Water Babies " 
(1886), are two other volumes which well display 
his moods of less unrestrained humour. "The 
Real Robinson Crusoe" (1893) and Lord Bra- 
bourne's (Knatchbull-Hugessen's) " Friends and 
Foes of Fairyland " (1886), well-nigh exhaust the 
list of his efforts in this direction. 

Prince of all foreign illustrators for babyland is 
M. Boutet de Monvel, whose works deserve an 
exhaustive monograph. Although comparatively 
few of his books are really well known in England, 
" Little Folks " contains a goodly number of his 
designs. La Fontaine's " Fables " (an English 
edition of which is published by the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge) is (so far as I 
have discovered) the only important volume re- 
printed with English text. Possibly his " Jeanne 
d'Arc " ought not to be named among children's 
books, yet the exquisite drawing of its children and 
the unique splendour the artist has imparted to 
simple colour-printing, endear it to little ones no 
less than adults. But it would be absurd to 
suppose that readers of The Studio do not know 
this masterpiece of its class, a book no artistic 




ILLUSTRATION FROM " RUSSIAN FAIRY TALES " 

(LAWRENCE AND BULLEN. 1893) 



RY C. M. GERE 



49 








/££t^f,C/£ /L^2C 



THE SINGING LESSON 
No. i. FROM THE 
ORIGINAL DRAWING 
BY A. NOBODY 





A-v Lstif-s^sCc 



THE SINGING LESSON 
—No. 2. FROM THE 
ORIGINAL DRAWING 
BY A. NOBODY 



Children's Books 



household can possibly afford to be 
without. Earlier- books by M. de 
Monvel, which show him in his most 
engaging mood (the mood in the illus- 
tration from " Little Folks " here re- 
produced), are " Vieilles Chansons et 
Rondes," by Ch. M. Widor, "La 
Civilite Puerile et Honnete," and 
" Chansons de France pour les Petits 
Fran<jais." Despite their entirely 
different characterisation of the child, 
and a much stronger grasp of the 
principles of decorative composition, 
these delightful designs are more nearly 
akin to those of Miss Kate Green- 
away than are any others published 
in Europe or America. Yet M. de 
Monvel is not only absolutely French 
in his types and costumes but in the 
movement and expression of his 
serious little people, who play with a 
certain demure gaiety that those who 
have watched French children in the 
Gardens of the Luxembourg or Tui- 
leries, or a French seaside resort, 
know to be absolutely truthful. For 
the Gallic be'be certainly seems less 
" rampageous " than the English 
urchin. A certain daintiness of 
movement and timidity in the boys 
especially adds a grace of its own to 
the games of French children which 





ILLUSTRATION KROM 



" ADVENTU 
(lil.ACKI 



RKS IN TOY 
E AND SON. 



ILLUSTRATION FROM " PRINCE BOOHOO " BY CORDON BROWNE 

(GARDNER, DARTON AND CO. 1897) 



is not without its peculiar 
charm. This is singularly well 
caught in M. de Monvel's de- 
licious drawings, where naively 
symmetrical arrangement and 
a most admirable simplicity 
of colour are combined. In- 
deed, of all non-English artists 
who address the little people, 
he alone has the inmost secret 
of combining realistic drawing 
with sumptuous effects in con- 
ventional decoration. 

The work of the Danish 
illustrator, Lorenz Froelich, is 
almost as familiar in English as 
in Continental nurseries, yet 
his name is often absent from 
the title-pages of books con- 
taining his drawings. Perhaps 
those attributed to him formally 
that are most likely to be 
known by British readers are in 
" When I was a Little Girl " and 
" NineVears Old" (Macmillan), 



LAND BY ALICE B, WOODWARD 



1S97) 



and their Illustrators 



but, unless memory is treacherous, one remembers 
toy-books in colours (published by Messrs. Nelson 
and others), that were obviously from his designs. 
A little known French book, " Le Royaume des 
Gourmands," exhibits the artist in a more fanciful 
aspect, where he makes a far better show than in 
some of his ultra-pretty realistic studies. Other 
French volumes, " Histoire d'un Bouchee de Pain," 
" Lili a la Campagne," " La Journe'e de Made- 
moiselle Lili," and the " Alphabet de Mademoiselle 
Lili," may possibly be the original sources whence 
the blocks were borrowed and adapted to English 
text. But the veteran illustrator has done far too 
large a number of designs to be catalogued here. 
For grace and truth, and at times real mastery of 
his material, no notice of children's artists could 
abstain from placing him very high in their ranks. 
Oscar Pletsch is another artist — presumably a 
German — whose work has been widely republished 
in England. In many respects it resembles that 
of Froelich, and is almost entirely devoted to the 
daily life of the inmates of the nursery, with their 
tiny festivals and brief tragedies. It would seem 
to appeal more to children than their elders, 
because the realistic transcript of their doings by 



his hand often lacks the touch of pathos, or of 
grown-up humour that finds favour with adults. 

The mass of children's toy-books published by 
Messrs. Dean, Darton, Routledge, Warne, Marcus 
Ward, Isbister, Hildesheimer and many others 
cannot be considered exhaustively, if only from the 
fact that the names of the designers are frequently 
omitted. Probably Messrs. Kronheim & Co., and 
other colour-printers, often supplied pictures de- 
signed by their own staff. Mr. Edmund Evans, 
to whom is due a very large share of the success 
of the Crane, Caldecott, and Kate Greenaway (Rout- 
ledge) books, more frequently reproduced the work 
of artists whose names were considered sufficiently 
important to be given upon the books themselves. 
A few others of Routledge's toy-books besides those 
mentioned are worth naming. Mr. H. S. Marks, R. A., 
designed two early numbers of their shilling series : 
" Nursery Rhymes " and " Nursery Songs ; " and to 
J. D. Watson may be attributed the " Cinderella " 
in the same series. Other sixpenny and shilling 
illustrated books were by C. H. Bennett, C. W. 
Cope, A. W. Bayes, Julian Portch, Warwick 
Reynolds, F. Keyl, and Harrison Weir. 

The " Greedy Jim," by Bennett, is only second 




ILLUSTRATION FROM ''NONSENSE 



(GARDNER, DARTON AND CO.) 



BY A. NOBODY 

53 



Children s Books 




ILLUSTRATION (REDUCED) FROM "THE CHILD'S PIC- 
TORIAL." BY MRS. R. HALLWARD (s.P.C.K.) 



to " Struwwlpeter " itself, in its lasting power to 
delight little ones. If out of print it deserves to 
be revived. 

Although Mr. William de Morgan appears to 
have illustrated but a single volume, " On a Pin- 
cushion," by Mary de Morgan (Seeley, 1877), yet 
that is so interesting that it must be noticed. Its 
interest is double — first in the very " decorative " 
quality of its pictures, which are full of " colour " 
and look like woodcuts more than process blocks ; 
and next in* the process itself, which was the artist's 
own invention. So far as I gather from Mr. De 
Morgan's own explanation, the drawings were 
made on glass coated with some yielding sub- 
stance, through which a knife or graver cut the 
" line." Then an electro was taken. This process, 
it is clear, is almost exactly parallel with that of 
wood-cutting — i.e., the " whites " are taken out, 
and the sweep of the tool can be guided by the 
worker in an absolutely untrammelled way. Those 
who love the qualities of a woodcut, and have not 
time to master the technique of wood-cutting or 
engraving, might do worse than experiment with 
Mr. De Morgan's process. A quantity of proofs 
of designs he executed — but never published — 
show that it has many possibilities worth develop- 
ing. 

The work of Reginald Hallward deserves to be 
discussed at greater length than is possible here. 
His most important book (printed finely in gold 
and colours by Edmund Evans), is " Flowers of 

54 



Paradise," issued by Macmillan some years 
The drawings for this beautiful quarto we 
shown at one of the early Arts and Craft. 
Exhibitions. Some designs, purely decorative, 
are interspersed among the figure subjects. 
" Quick March," a toy-book (Warne), is also 
full of the peculiar "quality" which distinguishes 
Mr. Hallward's work, and is less austere than 
certain later examples. The very notable magazine, 
The Child's Pictorial, illustrated almost entirely in 
colours, which the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge published for ten years, contains work 
by this artist, and a great many illustrations by 
Mrs. Hallward, which alone would serve to impart 
value to a publication that has (as we have 
pointed out elsewhere) very many early examples 
by Charles Robinson, and capital work by W. J. 
Morgan. Mrs. Hallward's work is marked by 
strong Pre-Raphaelite feeling, although she does 
not, as a rule, select old-world themes, but depicts 
children of to-day. Both Mr. and Mrs. Hallward 
eschew the " pretty-pretty " type, and are bent on 




M FOR THE MOON 
J WITH HER SOFT 
SILVERY LIGHT OH HOW 
KIND SHE IS TO LIGHT 
THE WORLD AT NIGHT 



ILLUSTRATION FROM "A, B, c" BY MRS. GASKIN 

(ELKIN mathews) 




"KING LOVE. A CHRISTMAS 
GREETING." BY H. GRANVILLE 
FELL 







icmillan s< 
beautifu 

also 
than 



I 
not 

B : , ; . H Hi 

bent on 



I FROM 

" itself, in its lasting power to 
it deserves to 

Morgan, appears to 

;le volume, "On a 
' by Mary de Morgan ( 

in the very "decorati 
which are full of » 
• ess blocks- 

:,nd If, which was the an 

rgan'i 

clear, is aim 
of 
love the qualities 

■ 

U A M T a l>IU.i A $ 7 U . [ OM J >1 

iLUIVHA-JID II YM 
His ■ ■ "JJilH 

and colour 

54 




THE MOON 
TH HER SOFT 



KY LIGHT OH HOW 

S SHE ISTO LIGHT 

THE WORLD AT NIGHT 

D A I T if a hd! 






and their Illustrators 



producing really " decorative " pages. So that 
to-day, when the ideal they so long championed 
has become popular, it is strange to find that their 
work is not better known. 

The books illustrated by past or present students 
of the Birmingham School will be best noticed in 
a group, as, notwithstanding some distinct indi- 
viduality shown by many of the artists, especially 
in their later works, the idea that links the group 
together is sufficiently similar to impart to all a 
certain resemblance. In other words, you can 
nearly always pick out a " Birmingham " illustration 
at a glance, even if it would be impossible to 
confuse the work of Mr. Gaskin with that of Miss 
Levetus. 

Arthur Gaskin's illustrations to Andersen's 
" Stories and Fairy Tales " (George Allen) are 
beyond doubt the most important volumes in any 
way connected with the school. Mr. William Morris 




ILLUSTRATION FROM "THE STORY OF BLUEBEARD" 

(LAWRENCE AND BULLEN. 1895) 



ranked them so highly that Mr. Gaskin was com- 
missioned to design illustrations for some of the 
Kelmscott Press books, and Mr. Walter Crane has 
borne public witness to their excellence. This alone 
is sufficient to prove that they rise far above the 
average level. " Good King Wenceslas " (Cornish 
Bros.) is another of Mr. Gaskin's books — his best 
in many ways. He it is also who illustrated and 
decorated Mr. Baring-Gould's "A Book of Fairy 
Tales " (Methuen). 

Mrs. Gaskin (Georgie Cave France) is also 
familiar to readers of The Studio. Perhaps her 
"A, B, C," (published by Elkin Mathews), and 
" Horn Book Jingles " (The Leadenhall Press), a 
unique book in shape and style, contain the best 
of her work so far. 

Miss Levetus has contributed many illustrations 
to books. Among the best are " Turkish Fairy 
Tales " (Lawrence and Bullen), and " Verse Fancies " 
(Chapman and Hall). 

" Russian Fairy Tales " (Law- 
rence and Bullen) is distin- 
guished by the designs of C. M. 
Gere, who has done compara- 
tively little illustration ; hence 
the book has more than usual 
interest, and takes a far higher 
artistic rank than its title might 
lead one to expect. 

Miss Bradley has illustrated 
one of Messrs. Blackie's hap- 
piest volumes this year. " Just 
Forty Winks " (from which one 
picture is reproduced here), 
shows that the artist has steered 
clear of the " Alice in Wonder- 
land " model, which the author 
can hardly be said to have 
avoided. Miss Bradley has also 
illustrated the prettily decorated 
book of poems, " Songs for Some- 
body," by Dollie Radford (Nutt). 
The two series of " Children's 
Singing Games" (Nutt) are 
among the most pleasant vol- 
umes the Birmingham school 
has produced. Both are deco- 
rated by Winifred Smith, who 
shows considerable humour as 
well as ingenuity. 

Among volumes illustrated, 
each by the members of the Bir- 
mingham school, are " A Book of 
Pictured Carols " (George Allen), 
and Mr. Baring-Gould's " Nur- 
sery Rhymes " (Methuen). Both 
these volumes contain some of 
the most representative work of 
Birmingham, and the latter, with 
its rich borders and many pic- 
tures, is a book that consistently 
57 



BY E. SOUTHALL 



Children's Books 




ILLUSTRATION FROM "NURSERY RHYMES 



KY PAUL WOODROFFE 



(GEORGE ALLEN. 



■897) 



maintains a very fine ideal, rare at any time, and 
perhaps never before applied to a book for the 
nursery. Indeed were it needful to choose a 
single book to represent the school, this one would 
stand the test of selection. 

In Messrs. Dent's " Banbury Cross " series, the 
Misses Violet and Evelyn Holden illustrated " The 
House that Jack Built"; Sidney Heath was re- 
sponsible for "Aladdin," and Mrs. H. T. Adams 
decorated " Tom Thumb, &c." 

Mr. Laurence Housman is more than an illus- 
trator of fairy tales ; he is himself a rare creator of 
such fancies, and has, moreover, an almost unique 
power of conveying his ideas in the medium. His 
" Farm in Fairyland " and " A House of Joy " 
(both published by Kegan Paul and Co.) have 
often been referred to in The Studio. Yet, at 
the risk of reiterating what nobody of taste doubts, 
one must place his work in this direction head 
and shoulders above the crowd — even the crowd 
of excellent illustrators — because its amazing 
fantasy and caprice are supported by cunning 
58 



technique that makes the whole work a " picture," 
not merely a decoration or an interpretation of the 
text. As a spinner of entirely bewitching stories, 
that hold a child spell-bound, and can be read and 
re-read by adults, he is a near rival of Andersen 
himself. 

H. Granville Fell, better known perhaps from 
his decorations to " The Book of Job," and certain 
decorated pages in the English Illustrated Maga- 
zine, illustrated three of Messrs. Dent's " Banbury 
Cross" series — "Cinderella, &c," "AH Baba," 
and " Tom Hickathrift." His work in these is 
full of pleasant fancy and charming types. 

A very sumptuous setting of the old fairy tale, 
" Beauty and the Beast," in this case entitled 
"Zelinda and the Monster" (Dent, 1895), with 
ten photogravures after paintings by the Countess 
of Lovelace, must not be forgotten, as its text may 
bring it into our present category. 

Miss Rosie Pitman, in " Maurice and the Red 
Jar " (Macmillan), shows much elaborate effort 
and a distinct fantasy in design. "Undine" 



and their Illustrators 



(Macmillan, 1897) is a still more successful achieve- 
ment. 

Richard Heighway is one of the " Banbury 
Cross" illustrators in "Blue Beard," &c. (Dent), 
and has also pictured ^Esop's " Fables," with 300 
designs (in Macmillan 's Cranford series). 

Mr. J. F. Sullivan — who must not be con- 
fused with his namesake — is one who has rarely 
illustrated works for little children, but in the 
famous " British Workman " series in Fan, in 
dozens of Tom Hood's " Comic Annuals," and 
elsewhere, has provoked as many hearty laughs 
from the nursery as from the drawing-room. In 
" The Flame Flower " (Dent) we find a side- 
splitting volume, illustrated with 100 drawings by 
the author. For this only Mr. J. F. Sullivan has 
plunged readers deep in debt, and when one recalls 
the amazing number of his delicious absurdities 
in the periodical literature of at least twenty years 
past, it seems astounding to find that the name of 
so entirely well-equipped a draughtsman is yet not 
the household word it should be. 

E. J. Sullivan, with eighty illustrations to the 
Cranford edition of "Tom Brown's Schooldays," 
comes for once within our present limit. 

J. D. Batten is responsible for the illustra- 
tion of so many important collections of fairy tales 
that it is vexing not to be able to reproduce a 
selection of his drawings, to show the fertility of 
his invention and his consistent improvement in 
technique. The series, " Fairy Tales of the 
British Empire," collected and edited by Mr. 
Jacobs, already include five volumes — English, 
More English, Celtic, More Celtic, and Indian, all 
liberally illustrated by J. D. Batten, as are " The 
Book of Wonder Voyages," by J. Jacobs (Nutt), 
and "Fairy Tales from the Arabian Nights," 
edited by E. Dixon, and a second series, both 
published by Messrs. J. M. Dent and Co. "A 
Masque of Dead Florentines" (Dent) can hardly 
be brought into our subject. 

Louis Davis has illustrated far too few children's 
books. His Fitzroy pictures show how delight- 
fully he can appeal to little people, and in " Good 
Night Verses," by Dollie Radford (Nutt), we have 
forty pages of his designs that are peculiarly dainty 
in their quality, and tender in their poetic inter- 
pretation of child-life. 

"Wymps" (Lane, 1896), with illustrations by 
Mrs. Percy Dearmer, has a quaint straightfor- 
wardness, of a sort that exactly wins a critic of the 
nursery. 

J. C. Sowerby, a designer for stained glass, 
in "Afternoon Tea" (Warne, 1880), set a 
new fashion for " aesthetic " little quartos costing 
five or six shillings each. This was followed by 
"At Home" (1881), and "At Home Again" 
(1886, Marcus Ward), and later by " Young Maids 
and Old China." These, despite their popularity, 
display no particular invention. For the real fancy 
and " conceit " of the books you have to turn to 



their decorative borders by Thomas Crane. This 
artist, collaborating with Ellen Houghton, con- 
tributed two other volumes to the same series, 
"Abroad" (1882), and "London Town" (1883), 
both prime favourites of their day. 

Lizzie Lawson, in many contributions for 
Little Folks and a volume in colours, " Old 
Proverbs " (Cassell), displayed much grace in 
depicting children's themes. 

Nor among coloured books of the "eighties" 
must we overlook " Under the Mistletoe " (Griffith 
and Farran, 1886), and " When all is Young" 
(Christmas Roses, 1886); "Punch and Judy," by 
F. E. Weatherley, illustrated by Patty Townsend 
(1885); "The Parables of Our Lord," really 
dignified pictures compared with most of their 
class, by W. Morgan ; " Puss in Boots," illus- 
trated by S. Caldwell ; " Pets and Playmates " 
(1888); "Three Fairy Princesses," illustrated by 
Paterson (1885); "Picture Books of the Fables 
of /Esop," another series of quaintly designed 
picture books, modelled on Struwwlpeter ; " The 
Robbers' Cave," illustrated by A. M. Lockyer, 
and "Nursery Numbers" (1884), illustrated by 
an amateur named Bell, all these being published 
by Messrs. Marcus Ward and Co., who issued 
later, " Where Lilies Grow," a very popular volume, 
illustrated in the " over-pretty " style by Mrs. 
Stanley Berkeley. The attractive series of toy- 
books in colours, published in the form of a 
Japanese folding album, were probably designed 
by Percy Macquoid, and published by the same 
firm, who issued an oblong folio, " Herrick's 
Content," very pleasantly decorated by Mrs. 
Houghton. R. Andre was (and for all I know is 
still) a very prolific illustrator of children's coloured 
books. " The Cruise of the Walnut Shell " (Dean, 
1881) ; " A Week Spent in a Glass Pond " (Gard- 
ner, Darton and Co.) ; " Grandmother's Thimble " 
(Warne, 1882); "Pictures and Stories" (Warne, 
1882); "Up Stream" (Low, 1884); "A Lilli- 
putian Opera " (Day, 1885); the Oakleaf Library 
(six shilling volumes, Warne) ; and Mrs. Ewing's 
Verse Books (six vols. S.P.C.K.) are some of the 
best known. T. Pym, far less well-equipped as a 
draughtsman, shows a certain childish naivete in 
his (or was it her ?) " Pictures from the Poets " 
(Gardner, Darton and Co.) ; " A, B, C " (Gard- 
ner, Darton and Co.) ; " Land of Little People " 
(Hildesheimer, 1886); " We are Seven" (1880); 
" Children Busy " (1881) ; " Snow Queen " (Gard- 
ner, Darton and Co.) ; " Child's Own Story Book " 
(Gardner, Darton and Co.). 

Ida Waugh in " Holly Berries " (Griffith and 
Farran, 1881) ; "Wee Babies" (Griffith and 
Farran, 1882); "Baby Blossoms," " Tangles and 
Curls," and many other volumes mainly devoted 
to pictures of babies and their doings, pleased a 
very large audience both here and in the United 
States. " Dreams, Dances and Disappointments," 
and " The Maypole," both by Konstan and 

59 



Children s Books 



Castella, are gracefully decorated books issued by 
Messrs. De La Rue in 1882, who also published 
" The Fairies," illustrated by [H ?] Allingham in 
1 88 1. Major Seccombe in "Comic Sketches 
from History" (Allen, 1884), and "Cinderella" 
(Warne, 1882), touched our theme ; a large number 
of more or less comic books of military life and 
social satire hardly do so. Coloured books of 
which I have failed to discover copies for reference, 
are : A. Blanchard's " My Own Dolly " (Griffith 
and Farran, 1882); "Harlequin Eggs," by 
Civilly (Sonnenschein, 1884); "The Nodding 
Mandarin," by L. F. Day (Simpkin, 1883) ; "Cats- 
cradle," by C. Kendrick (Strahan, 1886); "The 
Kitten Pilgrims," by A. Ballantyne (Nisbet, 1887) ; 
"Ups and Downs " (1880), and "At his Mother's 
Knee" (1883), by M. J. Tilsey. "A Winter 
Nosegay" (Sonnenschein, 1881); " Pretty Peggy," 
by Emmet (Low, 1881); "Children's Kettle- 
drum," by M. A. C. (Dean, 1881); "Three Wise 
Old Couples," by Hopkins (Cassell, 188 1) ; " Puss 
in Boots," by E. K. Johnson (Warne) ; " Sugar 
and Spice and all that's Nice " (Strahan, 1881); 
" Fly away, Fairies," by Clarkson (Griffith and 
Farran, 1882); "The Tiny Lawn Tennis Club" 
(Dean, 1882); "Little Ben Bate," by M. Browne 
(Simpkin, 1882); " Nursery Night," by E. De- 
wane (Dean, 1882); "New Pinafore Pictures" 
(Dean, 1882); " Rumpelstiltskin " (De la Rue, 
1882); "Baby's Debut," by J. Smith (De la 
Rue, 1883); "Buckets and Spades" (Dean, 
1883); "Childhood" (Warne, 1883); "Dame 
Trot" (Chapman and Hall, 1883); "In and 
Out," by Ismay Thorne (Sonnenschein, 1884); 
" Under Mother's Wing," by Mrs. Clifford (Gard- 
ner, Darton, 1883); "Quacks" (Ward and Lock, 
1883); "Little Chicks" (Griffith and Farran, 
1883); "Talking Toys," "The Talking Clock," 
H. M. Bennett ; " Four Feet by Two," by Helena 
Maguire ; " Merry Hearts," " Cosy Corners," and 
" A Christmas Fairy," by Gordon Browne (all 
published by Nisbet). 

Among many books elaborately printed by 
Messrs. Hildesheimer, are two illustrated by M. 
E. Edwards and J. C. Staples, " Told in the 
Twilight" (1883); and "Song of the Bells" 
(1884); and one by M. E. Edwards only, "Two 
Children " ; others by Jane M. Dealy, " Sixes and 
Sevens" (1882), and "Little Miss Marigold" 
( 1S84) ; "Nursery Land," by H. J. Maguire (1888), 
and " Sunbeams," by E. K. Johnson and Ewart 
Wilson (1887). 

F. D. Bedford, who illustrated and decorated 
" The Battle of the Frogs and Mice " (Methuen), 
has produced this year one of the most satisfactory 
books with coloured illustrations. In " Nursery 
Rhymes " (Methuen), the pictures, block-printed 
in colour by Edmund Evans, are worthy to be 
placed beside the best books he has produced. 

Of all lady illustrators — the phrase is cumbrous, 
but we have no other — Miss A. B. Woodward 
60 



stands apart, not only by the vigour of her work, 
but by its amazing humour, a quality which is 
certainly infrequent in the work of her sister- 
artists. The books she has illustrated are not 
very many, but all show this quality. " Banbury 
Cross," in Messrs. Dent's Series is among the 
first. In "To Tell the King the Sky is Falling" 
(Blackie, 1896) there is a store of delicious 
examples, and in " The Brownies " (Dent, 1896), 
the vigour of the handling is very noticeable. 
In " Eric, Prince of Lorlonia " (Macmillan, 1896), 
we have further proof that these characteristics are 
not mere accidents, but the result of carefully 
studied intention, which is also apparent in the 
clever designs for the covers of Messrs. Blackie's 
Catalogue, 1896-97. This year, in " Red Apple 
and Silver Bells," Miss Woodward shows marked 
advance. The book, with its delicious rhymes by 
Hamish Hendry, is one to treasure, as is also her 
" Adventures in Toy Land," designs marked by 
the diablerie of which she, alone of lady artists, 
seems to have the secret. In this the wooden, 
inane expression of the toys contrasts delightfully 
with the animate figures. 

Mr. Charles Robinson is one of the youngest 
recruits to the army of illustrators, and yet his few 
years' record is both lengthy and kept at a singu- 
larly high level. In the first of his designs which 
attracted attention we find the half-grotesque, half- 
real child that he has made his own — fat, merry 
little people, that are bubbling over with the joy of 
mere existence. " Macmillan's Literary Primers " 
is the rather ponderous title of these booklets 
which cost but a few pence each, and are worth 
many a half-dozen high-priced nursery books. 
Stevenson's " Child's Garden of Verse," his first 
important book, won a new reputation by reason 
of its pictures. Then came " .^Esop's Fables," in 
Dent's " Banbury Cross " Series. The next year 
saw Mr. Gabriel Setoun's book of poems, 
"Child World," Mrs. Meynell's "The Children," 
Mr. H. D. Lowry's " Make Believe," and two 
decorated pages in " The Parade " (Henry and 
Co.). The present Christmas will see several 
books from his hand. 

" Old World Japan " (George Allen) has thirty- 
four, and " Legends from River and Mountain," 
forty-two, pictures by T. H. Robinson, which must 
not be forgotten. " The Giant Crab " (Nutt), and 
" Andersen " (Bliss, Sands), are among the best 
things W. Robinson has yet done. 

" Nonsense," by A. Nobody, and " Some More 
Nonsense," by A. Nobody (Gardner, Darton & Co.), 
are unique instances of an unfettered humour. 
That their apparently naive grotesques are from the 
hand of a very practised draughtsman is evident 
at a first glance ; but as their author prefers to re- 
main anonymous his identity must not be revealed. 
Specimens from the published work (which is, 
however, mostly in colour), and facsimiles of 
hitherto unpublished drawings, entitled " The 




f^iB dc. A\cw = 



Children s Books 




itfi'toVK 



*?*»-•. 






Singing Lesson," kindly lent by Messrs. Gardner, 
Darton & Co., are here to prove how merry our 
anonym can be. By the way, it may be well to 
add that the artist in question is not Sir Edward 
Burne-Jones, whose caricatures, that are the 
delight of children of all ages who know them, have 
been so far strictly kept to members of the family 
circle, for whom they were produced. 

The editor of The Studio, to whose selection of 
pictures for reproduction these pages owe their 
chief interest, has spared no effort to show a good 
working sample of the best of all classes, and 
in the space available has certainly omitted few of 
any consequence — except those so very well known, 
as, for instance, Tenniel's " Alice " series, and the 
Caldecott toy-books — which it would have been 
superfluous to illustrate again, especially in black 
and white after coloured originals. 

In Mrs. Field's volume already mentioned, the 
author says : " It has been well observed that 
children do not desire, and ought not to be 
furnished with purely realistic portraits of them- 
selves ; the boy's heart craves a hero, and the 
Johnny or Frank of the realistic story-book, the 
62 



ILLUSTRATION FROM " LITTLE FOLKS." BY MAURICE 
BOUTET DE MONVEL. (CASSEI.L AND CO.) 



little boy like himself, is not in this sense a hero." 
This passage, referring to the stories themselves, 
might be applied to their illustration with hardly 
less force. To idealise is the normal impulse of 
a child. True that it can " make believe " from 
the most rudimentary hints, but it is much easier 
to do so if something not too actual is the ground- 
work. Figures which delight children are never 
wholly symbolic, mere virtues and vices material- 
ised as personages of the anecdote. Real nonsense 
such as Lear concocted, real wit such as that which 
sparkles from Lewis Carroll's pages, find their 
parallel in the pictures which accompany each 
text. It is the feeble effort to be funny, the mildly 
punning humour of the imitators, which makes the 
text tedious, and one fancies the artist is also in- 
fected, for in such books the drawings very rarely 
rise to a high level. 

The "pretty-pretty " school, which has been too 
popular, especially in anthologies of mildly enter- 
taining rhymes, is sickly at its best, and fails to 
retain the interest of a child. Possibly, in plead- 
ing for imaginative art, one has forgotten that 
everywhere is Wonderland to a child, who would 
be no more astonished to find a real elephant drop- 
ping in to tea, or a real miniature railway across 
the lawn, than in finding a toy elephant or a toy 
engine awaiting him. Children are so accustomed 
to novelty that they do not realise the abnormal ; 



and their Illustrators 



nor do they always crave for unreality. As 
coaches and horses were the delight of youngsters 
a century ago, so are trains and steamboats to-day. 
Given a pile of books and an empty floor space, 
their imagination needs no mechanical models of 
real locomotives ; or, to be more correct, they 
enjoy the make-believe with quite as great a zest. 
Hence, perhaps, in praising conscious art for chil- 
dren's literature, one is unwittingly pleasing older 
tastes ; indeed, it is not inconceivable that the 
" prig " which lurks in most of us may be nurtured 
by too refined diet. Whether a child brought up 
wholly on the aesthetic toy-book would realise 
the greatness of Rembrandt's etchings or other 
masterpieces of realistic art more easily than one 
who had only known the current pictures of cheap 
magazines, is not a question to be decided off-hand. 
To foster an artificial taste is not wholly unattended 
with danger ; but if humour be present, as it is in 
the works of the best artists for the nursery, then 
all fear vanishes ; good wholesome laughter is the 
deadliest bane to the prig-microbe, and will leave 
no infant lisping of the preciousness of Cimabue, 
or the wonder of Sandro Botticelli, as certain 
children were reported to do in the brief days when 
the aesthete walked his faded way among us. That 
modern children's books will — some of them at 
least — take an honourable place in an iconography 
of nineteenth-century art, many of the illustrations 




FAIRY ANDSPSgS 
^STATSS! CHILD 

ILLUSTRATION FROM "LULLABY LAND" 
BY CHARLES ROBINSON. (JOHN LANE. 1897) 




ILLUSTRATION FROM "GOULDS BOOK OF FAIRY TALES 
BY ARTHUR GASKIN. (METHUEN AND CO.) 



here reproduced are in themselves suffi- 
cient to prove. 

After so many pages devoted to the 
subject, it might seem as if the mass of 
material should have revealed very 
clearly what is the ideal illustration 
for children. But " children " is a col- 
lective term, ranging from the tastes of 
the baby to the precocious youngsters 
who dip into Mudie books on the sly, 
and hold conversations thereon which 
astonish their elders when by chance 
they get wind of the fact. Perhaps the 
belief that children can be educated by 
the eye is more plausible than well 
supported. In any case, it is good 
that the illustration should be well 
drawn, well coloured ; given that, 
whether it be realistically imitative or 
wholly fantastic is quite a secondary 
matter. As we have had pointed out 
to us, the child is not best pleased by 
mere portraits of himself; he prefers 
idealised children, whether naughtier 
and more adventurous, or absolute 
heroes of romance. And here a 
strange fact appears, that as a rule what 
pleases the boy pleases the girl also ; 
but that boys look down with scorn on 
" girls' books." Any one who has had 

63 



Childrefts Books 




too popular to-day. The illustrator when he 
is at work often thinks more of the art critic 
who may review his book than the readers 
who are to enjoy it. Purely conventional 
groups of figures, whether set in a landscape, 
or against a decorative background, as a rule 
fail to retain a child's interest. He wants 
invention and detail, plenty of incident, melo- 
drama rather than suppressed emotion. Some- 
thing moving, active, and suggestive pleases 
him most, something about which a story can 
be woven not so complex that his sense is 
puzzled to explain why things are as the artist 
drew them. It is good to educate children 
unconsciously, but if we are too careful that 
all pictures should be devoted to raising their 
standard of taste, it is possible that we may 
soon come back to the Miss Pinkerton ideal of 
amusement blended with instruction. Hence 
one doubts if the " ultra-precious " school 
really pleases the child ; and if he refuse the 
jam the powder is obviously refused also. 



ILLUSTRATION FROM MAKE BELIEVE. BY CHARLES 
ROBINSON (JOHN LANE. 1S96) 

to do with children knows how eagerly little sisters 
pounce upon books owned by their brothers. 
Now, as a rule, books for girls are confined to 
stories of good girls, pictures of good girls, and 
mildly exciting domestic incidents, comic or tragic. 
The child may be half angel ; he is undoubtedly 
half savage ; a Pagan indifference to other people's 
pain, and grim joy in other people's accidents, bear 
witness to that fact. Tender-hearted parents fear 
lest some pictures should terrify the little ones ; 
the few that do are those which the child himself 
discovers in some extraordinary way to be fetishes. 
He hates them, yet is fascinated by them. I 
remember myself being so appalled by a picture 
that is still keenly remembered. It fascinated me, 
and yet was a thing of which the mere memory 
made one shudder in the dark — the said picture 
representing a benevolent negro with Eva on his 
lap, from " Uncle Tom's Cabin," a blameless 
Sunday-school inspired story. The horrors of an 
early folio of Foxe's " Martyrs," of a grisly 
" Bunyan," with terrific pictures of Apollyon ; even 
a still more grim series by H. C. Selous, issued by 
the Art Union, if memory may be trusted, were 
merely exciting ; it was the mild and amiable repre- 
sentation of " Uncle Tom " that I felt to be the 
very incarnation of all things evil. This personal 
incident is quoted only to show how impossible 
it is for the average adult to foretell what will 
frighten or what will delight a child. For children 
are singularly reticent concerning the " bogeys " 
of their own creating, yet, like many fanatics, it 
is these which they really most fear. 

Certainly it is possible that over-conscious art is 
64 




LLUSTRATION FROM "JUST FORTY WINKS " BY 

GERTRUDE M. BRADLEY (BLACKIE AND SON. IS97) 




(JOHN LANE. 1897) 



ILLUSTRATION FROM "KING 
LONGBEARD." BY CHARLES 
ROBINSON 



Children 's Boohs 




ILLUSTRATION FROM "THE MAKING OF MATTHIAS 
BY LUCY KEMP-WELCH. (JOHN LANE. 1897) 



One who makes pictures for children, like one 
who writes them stories, should have the knack of 
entertaining them without any appearance of con- 
descension in so doing. They will accept any detail 
that is related to the incident, but are keenly alive 
to discrepancies of detail or action that clash 
with the narrative. As they do not demand fine 
drawing, so the artist must be careful to offer 
them very much more than academic accomplish- 
ment. Indeed, he (or she) must be in sympathy 
with childhood, and able to project his vision back 
to its point of view. And this is just a mood in 
accord with the feeling of our own time, when 
men distrust each other and themselves, and keep 
few ideals free from doubt, except the reverence 
for the sanctity of childhood. Those who have 
forsaken beliefs hallowed by centuries, and are the 
66 



most cynical and worldly-minded, yet 
often keep faith in one lost Atalantis — 
the domain of their own childhood and 
those who still dwell in the happy 
isle. To have given a happy hour to 
one of the least of these is peculiarly 
gratifying to many tired people to-day, 
those surfeited with success no less 
than those weary of failure. And such 
labour is of love all compact ; for chil- 
dren are grudging in their praise, and 
seldom trouble to inquire who wrote 
their stories or painted their pictures. 
Consequently those who work for them 
win neither much gold nor great fame ; 
but they have a most enthusiastic 
audience all the same. Yet when we 
remember that the veriest daubs and 
atrocious drawings are often welcomed 
as heartily, one is driven to believe that 
after all the bored people who turn to 
amuse the children, like others who 
turn to elevate the masses, are really, 
if unconsciously, amusing if not elevat- 
ing themselves. If children's books 
please older people — and that they do 
so is unquestionable — it would be well 
to acknowledge it boldly, and to share 
the pleasure with the nursery ; not to 
take it surreptitiously under the pretence 
of raising the taste of little people. 
Why should not grown-up people avow 
their pleasure in children's books if 
they feel it ? 

If a collector in search of a new 
hobby wishes to start on a quest full of 
disappointment, yet also full of lucky 
possibilities, illustrated books for chil- 
dren would give him an exciting theme. 
The rare volume he hunted for in vain 
at the British Museum and South Ken- 
sington, for which he scanned the 
shelves of every second-hand book- 
seller within reach, may meet his eye 
in a twopenny box, just as he has despaired 
of ever seeing, much less procuring, a copy. At 
least twice during the preparation of this number I 
have enjoyed that particular experience, and have 
no reason to suppose it was very abnormal. To 
make a fine library of these things may be difficult, 
but it is not a predestined failure. Caxtons and 
Wynkyn de Wordes seem less scarce than some 
of these early nursery books. Yet, as we know, the 
former have been the quest of collectors for years, 
and so are probably nearly all sifted out of the 
great rubbish-heaps of dealers ; the latter have 
not been in great demand, and may be unearthed 
in odd corners of country shops and all sorts 
of likely and unlikely places. Therefore, as a 
hobby, it offers an exciting quest with almost 
certain success in the end ; in short, it offers the 



and their Illustrators 



ideal conditions for collecting as a pastime, pro- 
vided you can muster sufficient interest in the sub- 
ject to become absorbed in its pursuit. So large is 
it that, even to limit one's quest to books with 
coloured pictures would yet require a good many 
years' hunting to secure a decent "bag." Another 
tempting point is that prices at present are mostly 
nominal, not because the quarry is plentiful, but 
because the demand is not recognised by the 
general bookseller. Of course, books in good 
condition, with unannotated pages, are rare ; and 
some series — Felix Summerley's, for example — 
which owe their chief interest to the " get-up " of 
the volume considered as a whole, would be scarce 
worth possessing if " rebound " or deprived of their 
covers. Still, always provided the game attracts 
him, the hobby-horseman has fair chances, 
and is inspired by motives hardly less noble than 
those which distinguish the pursuit of book- 
plates (ex libris), postage-stamps and other 
objects which have attracted men to devote not 
only their leisure and their spare cash, but often 
their whole energy and nearly all their 
resources. Societies, with all the pomp of 
officials, and members proudly arranging 
detached letters of the alphabet after their 
names, exist for discussing hobbies not 
more important. Speaking as an inter- 
ested but not infatuated collector, it 
seems as if the mere gathering together 
of rarities of this sort would soon be- 
come as tedious as the amassing of 
dull armorial ex libris, or sorting infi- 
nitely subtle varieties of postage-stamps. 
But seeing the intense passion such 
things arouse in their devotees, the fact 
that among children's books there are 
not a few of real intrinsic interest, ought 
not to make the hobby less attractive ; 
except that, speaking generally, your true 
collector seems to despise every quality 
except rarity (which implies market 
value ultimately, if for the moment 
there are not enough rival collectors to 
have started a " boom " in prices). Yet 
all these " snappers up of unconsidered 
trifles " help to gather together material 
which may prove in time to be not 
without value to the social historian 
or the student interested in the progress 
of printing and the art of illustration ; 
but it would be a pity to confuse 
ephemeral " curios " with lasting works 
of fine art, and the ardour of collect- 
ing need not blind one to the fact that 
the former are greatly in excess of the 
latter. 

The special full-page illustrations 
which appear in this number must not 
be left without a word of comment. In 
place of re-issuing facsimiles of actual 



illustrations from coloured books of the past which 
would probably have been familiar to many 
readers, drawings by artists who are mentioned 
elsewhere in this Christmas Number have been 
specially designed to carry out the spirit of the 
theme. For Christmas is pre-eminently the time 
for children's books. Mr. Robert Halls' painting 
of a baby, here called " The Heir to Fairyland " 
— the critic for whom all this vast amount of 
effort is annually expended — is seen still in the 
early or destructive stage, a curious foreshadowing 
of his attitude in a later development should he 
be led from the paths of Philistia to the bye-ways 
of art criticism. The portrait miniatures of child- 
life by Mr. Robert Halls, if not so well known as 
they deserve, cannot be unfamiliar to readers of 
The Studio, since many of his best works have 
been exhibited at the Academy and elsewhere. 

The lithograph by Mr. R. Anning Bell, " In 
Nooks with Books," represents a second stage of 
the juvenile critic when appreciation in a very 
acute form has set in, and picture-books are no 




ILLUSTRATION FROM "MISS MOUSE AND HER BOYS. BY L. 
LESLIE BROOKE. (MACMILLAN AND CO. 1897) 



67 



Children s Books and their Illustrators 




style he has adopted from 
the first. Studies by 
M. de Monvel have ap- 
peared before in The 
Studio, so that it would 
be merely reiterating the 
obvious to call attention 
to the exquisite truth of 
character which he ob- 
tains with rare artistry. 
G. W. 



The Editor 's best 
thanks are due to all those 
publishers who have so 
kindly and readily come 
forward with their assist- 
ance in the compilation 
of " Children's Books and 
their Illustrators." Owing 
to exigences of space re- 
ference to several import- 
ant new books has neces- 
sarily been postponed. 



ILLUSTRATION FROM 



" baby's LAYS " 

(ELKIN MATHEWS. 1897) 



BY E. CALVERT 



longer regarded as toys to de- 
stroy, but treasures to be en- 
joyed snugly with a delight in 
their possession. 

Mr. Granville Fell, with 
" King Love, a Christmas 
Greeting," turns back to the 
memory of the birthday whose 
celebration provokes the gifts 
which so often take the form of 
illustrated books, for Christmas 
is to • Britons more and more 
the children's festival. The 
conviviality of the Dickens' 
period may linger here and 
there ; but to adults generally 
Christmas is only a vicarious 
pleasure, for most households 
devote the day entirely to pleas- 
ing the little ones who have 
annexed it as their own special 
holiday. 

The dainty water-colour by 
Mr. Charles Robinson, and the 
charming drawing in line by M. 
Boutet de Monvel, call for no 
comment. Collectors will be 
glad to possess such excellent 
facsimiles of work by two illus- 
trators conspicuous for their 
work in this field. The figure 
by Mr. Robinson, " So Light of 
Foot, so Light of Spirit," is ex- 
tremely typical of the personal 
68 




ILLUSTRATION 
FROM " NATIONAL 

RHYMES." BY 

GORDON BROWNE 

(GARDNER, DARTON 

AND CO. 1897) 



A SELECTION FROM 

Frederick Warne & Co.'s New Publications. 



NEW WORKS OF FICTION BY 

MRS. FRANCES HODGSON BURNETT. 

Crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 6s. eaeh. 
HIS GRACE OF OSMOND: Being a Story of 

that Nobleman's Life omitted from the Narrative given to 
the World of Fashion under the title of "A Lady of 
Quality." 

With Title-page in Red and Black, and bound in cloth, uniform with 
the Companion Volume, " A Lady of Quality." 

A LADY OF QUALITY: Being a most Curious, 

hitherto Unknown History, as related by Mr. Isaac Bicker- 
staff, but not presented to the World of Fashion through 
the pages of The Tcitler, and now for the first time written 
down, by Frances Hodgson Burnett. 

Title-page in Red and Black, with Vignette and Etched Frontispiece 
from Original Drawings by Lancelot SfEED. 



MRS. F. H. BURNETT'S CHILDREN'S 
CLASSICS. 

Little Lord Fauntleroy. Illustrated. Medium 8vo, cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. 

Sarah Crewe. do. do. do. 3s. 6d. 

(Little St. Elizabeth. do. do. do. 3s. 6d. 

The One I Knew Best Of All. Illustrated. In medium crown 

8vo, gilt, 3s. 6d. 
The Captain's Youngest: Piccino and other Stories. Illustrated. 

Square crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 5s. 
TWO Little Pilgrims' Progress. Illustrated. Crown 8vo, gilt, 

gilt edges, 6s. 



EDITED BV ANDREW LANO. 

ILLUSTRATED BY L. LESLIE BROOKE. 
Medium 8vo, cloth gilt, gilt top, 6s. 

The Nursery Rhyme Book. 

With upwards of 100 Drawings by L. Leslie Brooke and an 

Introduction and Notes by Andrew Lang. 
" Mr. L. Leslie Brooke can draw for children as well as any one on 
this side of the channel."— The World. 



A NEW GIFT-BOOK FOR GIRLS. 

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS. 
In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, bevelled boards, price 3s. 6d. 

Mona St. Claire. 

By ANNIE E. ARMSTRONG. 

With Original Illustrations by G. D. Hammond, R.I. 
" There is a fine breeziness and open-air feeling about this story 
that cannot fail to make the reader mightily refreshed after she has 
finished the book; indeed, we dare wager that her brother, if he be 
honest, will confess to a thorough enjoyment of its sparkling pages, for 
it is one uf those rare girU' tales that even the supercilious boy can 
read with genuine delight."— Glasgow Mail. 



THE FAIRY TALE BOOK. FOR 1897 SEASON. 

In large crown 8vo, cHth gilt, bevelled boards and art linen, 

gilt top, price 3s. 6d. 

Icelandic Fairy Tales. 

By Mrs. M. HALL. 

With 16 Original Illustrations from Drawings by E. A. Mason. 

" A young reader could scarcely have a more promising introduc- 
tion to the literature of the Sagas. Sigurd and Frithjof and Ingeborg 
are not indeed such imposing creatures as they are in the sterner tales; 
but they are always people whom every child ought to know, and the 
giants are giants of the proper sort. ' — The Scotsman. 



A COMPLETE CATALOGUE OF PRESENTATION" BOOKS MAY BE OBTAINED ON APPLICATION TO 

FREDERICK WARNE & CO., Chandos House, Bedford Street, Strand. 

. . Some New Books for Children from . . 

MR. GRANT RICHARDS'S LIST. 



A BOOK OF VERSES FOR CHILDREN. 

Compiled by Edward Verrall Lucas. With Cover, Title-Page and End-Papers designed in 
Colours by F. D. Bedford. Crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 6s. 

THE GLOBE says : " 'A Book of Verses for Children ' is, we think, the best of its kind — partly because it is 
so comprehensive and so catholic, partly because it consists of matter not too hackneyed, and partly because 
that matter is so pleasantly arranged. . . . The book, which should be put into the hands of every child, 
is lucky in a bright yet tasteful exterior, and in vignettes and end-papers designed by F. D. Bedford in the 
happiest spirit" 

The Dumpy Books for Children. 

(i) THE FLAMP, THE AMELIORATOR, AND THE 
SCHOOLBOY'S APPRENTICE. 

By E. V. Lucas. 

(ii) MRS. TURNER'S CAUTIONARY STORIES. 

With an Introduction on Good and Bad Children. i8mo, cloth, is. 6d. each. 

TOM, UNLIMITED. A Story for Children. 

By Martin Leach Warborough. With 50 Illustrations by Gertrude Bradley. Globe 8vo, 
cloth, 5s. 

GRANT RICHARDS, 9 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 



V 



PRINTED FOR THE PROPRIETOR BY BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO., TAVISTOCK STREET, COVENT GARDEN, AND 
PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICES OF "THE STUDIO," 5 HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON. 



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